
The rapid development of microfabrication and assembly of nanostructures has opened up many opportunities to miniaturize structures that confine light, producing unusual and extremely interesting optical properties. This book addresses the large variety of optical phenomena taking place in confined solid state structures: microcavities. Microcavities represent a unique laboratory for quantum optics and photonics. They exhibit a number of beautiful effects, including lasing, superfluidity, superradiance, and entanglement. The book is written by four practitioners strongly involved in experiments and theories of microcavities. The introductory chapters present the semiclassical and quantum approaches to description of lightmatter coupling in various solid state systems, including planar cavities, pillars, and spheres; introduce excitonpolaritons, and discuss their statistics and optical properties. The weak and strong excitonlight coupling regimes are discussed further with emphasis on the Purcell effect, lasing, optical parametric oscillations, and BoseEinstein condensation of exciton polaritons. The last chapter discusses polarization and spin properties of cavity polaritons. The book also contains portraits of scientists who gave key contributions to classical electromagnetism, quantum optics, and exciton physics.

This book offers a grounding in the field of coherent Xray optics, which in the closing years of the 20th century experienced something of a renaissance with the availability of thirdgeneration synchrotron sources. It begins with a treatment of the fundamentals of Xray diffraction for both coherent and partially coherent radiation, together with the interactions of Xrays with matter. Xray sources, optical elements, and detectors are then discussed, with an emphasis on their role in coherent Xray optics. Various aspects of coherent Xray imaging are then considered, including holography, interferometry, self imaging, phase contrast, and phase retrieval. The foundations of the new field of singular Xray optics are examined, focusing on the topic of Xray phase vortices. Most topics in the book are developed from first principles using a chain of logic which ultimately derives from the Maxwell equations, with numerous references to the contemporary and historical research literature.

Are the fundamental constants of Nature really constant? How can we build clocks that lose only a few seconds on the entire life of the Universe? This book answers these questions by illustrating the history and the most recent advances in atomic physics connected to the possibility of performing precise measurements and achieving the ultimate control of the atomic state. Written in an introductory style, this book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to more experienced researchers who need to stay uptodate with the most recent advances. It is not a classical atomic physics textbook, in which the focus is on the theory of atomic structures and on lightmatter interaction: it focuses on the experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental techniques, as well as discussing the results and the challenges of contemporary research. Emphasis is given to the investigation of precision physics: from the determination of fundamental constants to tests of general relativity and quantum electrodynamics, from the realization of atomic clocks and interferometers to the precise simulation of condensed matter theories with ultracold gases. The book discusses these topics while tracing the evolution of experimental atomic physics from traditional laser spectroscopy to the revolution introduced by laser cooling, which allows the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a degree above absolute zero, opening new frontiers in precision in atomic spectroscopy and revealing novel states of matter.

This volume gathers the lectures notes of Session CVII of the Les Houches summer school of Physics, entitled “Current trends in Atomic Physics”. The school took place in July 2016 and had the goal to give the participants a broad overview of Atomic Physics as a whole, and in particular its connections to other areas of physics, such as condensedmatter and highenergy physics. The book comprises twelve chapters corresponding to lectures delivered at the school.

Nanoscale devices are distinguishable from the larger microscale devices in their specific dependence on physical phenomena and effects that are central to their operation. The size change manifests itself through changes in importance of the phenomena and effects that become dominant and the changes in scale of underlying energetics and response. Examples of these include classical effects such as single electron effects, quantum effects such as the states accessible as well as their properties; ensemble effects ranging from consequences of the laws of numbers to changes in properties arising from different magnitudes of the interactions, and others. These interactions, with the limits placed on size, make not just electronic, but also magnetic, optical and mechanical behavior interesting, important and useful. Connecting these properties to the behavior of devices is the focus of this textbook. Description of the book series: This collection of four textbooks in the Electroscience series span the undergraduatetograduate education in electrosciences for engineering and science students. It culminates in a comprehensive understanding of nanoscale devices—electronic, magnetic, mechanical and optical in the 4th volume, and builds to it through volumes devoted to underlying semiconductor and solidstate physics with an emphasis on phenomena at surfaces and interfaces, energy interaction, and fluctuations; a volume devoted to the understanding of the variety of devices through classical microelectronic approach, and an engineeringfocused understanding of principles of quantum, statistical and information mechanics. The goal is provide, with rigor and comprehensiveness, an exposure to the breadth of knowledge and interconnections therein in this subject area that derives equally from sciences and engineering. By completing this through four integrated texts, it circumvents what is taught ad hoc and incompletely in a larger number of courses, or not taught at all. A four course set makes it possible for the teaching curriculum to be more comprehensive in this and related advancing areas of technology. It ends at a very modern point, where researchers in the subject area would also find the discussion and details an important reference source.

Both rich fundamental physics of microcavities and their intriguing potential applications are addressed in this book, oriented to undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as to physicists and engineers. We describe the essential steps of development of the physics of microcavities in their chronological order. We show how different types of structures combining optical and electronic confinement have come into play and were used to realize first weak and later strong light–matter coupling regimes. We discuss photonic crystals, microspheres, pillars and other types of artificial optical cavities with embedded semiconductor quantum wells, wires and dots. We present the most striking experimental findings of the recent two decades in the optics of semiconductor quantum structures. We address the fundamental physics and applications of superposition lightmatter quasiparticles: excitonpolaritons and describe the most essential phenomena of modern Polaritonics: Physics of the Liquid Light. The book is intended as a working manual for advanced or graduate students and new researchers in the field.

This book is based on lectures at the Les Houches Summer School held in August 2011 for an audience of advanced graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in particle physics, theoretical physics, and cosmology—areas where new experimental results were on the verge of being discovered at CERN. The school was held during a summer of great anticipation that at any moment contact might be made with the most recent theories of the nature of the fundamental forces and the structure of spacetime. In fact, during the session, the long anticipated discovery of the Higgs particle was announced. The book vividly describes the creative diversity and tension within the community of theoreticians who have split into several components—those doing phenomenology and those dealing with highly theoretical problems—with a few trying to bridge both domains. The theoreticians covered many directions in the theory of elementary particles, from classics such as the supersymmetric Standard Model to very recent ideas such as the relation between black holes, hydrodynamics, and gauge/gravity duality. The experimentalists explained in detail how intensively and precisely the LHC has verified the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model, predictions that were at the frontline of experimental discovery during the 1970s to 1990s, and how the LHC is ready to make new discoveries. They described many of the ingenious and pioneering techniques developed at CERN for the detection and data analysis of billions of billions of proton–proton collisions.

This book collects lecture courses and seminars given at the Les Houches Summer School 2010 on ‘Quantum Theory: From Small to Large Scales’. Fundamental quantum phenomena appear on all scales, from microscopic to macroscopic. Some of the pertinent questions include the onset of decoherence, the dynamics of collective modes, the influence of external randomness, and the emergence of dissipative behaviour. Our understanding of such phenomena has been advanced by the study of model systems and by the derivation and analysis of effective dynamics for large systems and over long times. In this field, research in mathematical physics has regularly contributed results that were recognized as essential in the physics community. During the last few years, the key questions have been sharpened and progress on answering them has been particularly strong. This book reviews the stateoftheart developments in this field and provides the necessary background for future studies.

Progress in modern radio astronomy led to the discovery of space masers in the microwave range, and it became a powerful tool for studies of interstellar starforming molecular clouds. Progress in observational astronomy, particularly with groundbased huge telescopes and the spacebased Hubble Space Telescope, has led to recent discoveries of space lasers in the optical range. These operate in gas condensations in the vicinity of the mysterious star Eta Carinae (one of the most luminous and massive stars of our Galaxy). Both maser and laser effects, first demonstrated under laboratory conditions, have now been discovered to occur under natural conditions in space too. This book describes consistently the elements of laser science, astrophysical plasmas, modern astronomical observation techniques, and the fundamentals and properties of astrophysical lasers.

This book is an introduction to quantum optics for students who have studied electromagnetism and quantum mechanics at an advanced undergraduate or graduate level. It provides detailed expositions of theory with emphasis on general physical principles. Foundational topics in classical and quantum electrodynamics, including the semiclassical theory of atomfield interactions, the quantization of the electromagnetic field in dispersive and dissipative media, uncertainty relations, and spontaneous emission, are addressed in the first half of the book. The second half begins with a chapter on the JaynesCummings model, dressed states, and some distinctly quantummechanical features of atomfield interactions, and includes discussion of entanglement, the nocloning theorem, von Neumann’s proof concerning hidden variable theories, Bell’s theorem, and tests of Bell inequalities. The last two chapters focus on quantum fluctuations and fluctuationdissipation relations, beginning with Brownian motion, the FokkerPlanck equation, and classical and quantum Langevin equations. Detailed calculations are presented for the laser linewidth, spontaneous emission noise, photon statistics of linear amplifiers and attenuators, and other phenomena. Van der Waals interactions, Casimir forces, the Lifshitz theory of molecular forces between macroscopic media, and the manybody theory of such forces based on dyadic Green functions are analyzed from the perspective of Langevin noise, vacuum field fluctuations, and zeropoint energy. There are numerous historical sidelights throughout the book, and approximately seventy exercises.

This book presents good treatments of paraxial matrix optics, aberration theory, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel–Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian and Bessel beams, multiple thin films, surface plasmons, photonic crystals, and fiber optics. In addition to theory, the book surveys the state of the art in applications including laser optics, computational imaging, medical imaging, polarization, optical modulation, and nonlinear optics. It requires background in Fourier transforms, electromagnetism up to Maxwell’s equations, and matrix algebra for the relevant topics. There are problems at the end of each chapter. A large number of figures, both diagrams and photographs are included to give readers a good physical insight into optics.

A classic text in the field providing a readable and accessible guide for students of electrical and electronic engineering. Fundamentals of electric properties of materials are illustrated and put into context with contemporary applications in engineering. Mathematical content is kept to a minimum allowing the reader to focus on the subject. The starting point is the behaviour of the electron, which is explored both in the classical and in the quantummechanical context. Then comes the study of bonds, the free electron model, band structure, and the theory of semiconductors, followed by a chapter on semiconductor devices. Further chapters are concerned with the fundamentals of dielectrics, magnetic materials, lasers, optoelectronics, and superconductivity. The last chapter is on metamaterials, which has been a quite popular subject in the past decade. The book includes problems, the worked solutions are available in a separate publication: Solutions manual for electrical properties of materials. There is an appendix giving a list of Nobel Prize winners whose work was crucial for describing the electric properties of materials, and there are further appendices giving descriptions of phenomena which did not fit easily within the main text. In particular there is a quite detailed appendix that summarizes the properties of memory elements. The book is ideal for undergraduates, and is also an invaluable reference for graduate students and others wishing to explore this rapidly changing field.

This book tells the human story of one of mankind’s greatest intellectual adventures—how we understood that light travels at a finite speed, so that when we look up at the stars we are looking back in time. And how the search for an absolute frame of reference in the universe led inexorably to Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2 for the energy released by nuclear weapons which also powers our sun and the stars. From the ancient Greeks measuring the distance to the Sun, to today’s satellite navigation and Einstein’s theories, the book takes the reader on a gripping historical journey. How Galileo with his telescope discovered the moons of Jupiter and used their eclipses as a global clock, allowing travellers to find their longitude. How Roemer, noticing that the eclipses were sometimes late, used this delay to obtain the first measurement of the speed of light, which takes eight minutes to get to us from the Sun. From the international collaborations to observe the transits of Venus, including Cook’s voyage to Australia, to the extraordinary achievements of Young and Fresnel, whose discoveries eventually taught us that light travels as a wave but arrives as a particle, and the quantum weirdness which follows. In the nineteenth century we find Faraday and Maxwell, struggling to understand how light can propagate through the vacuum of space unless it is filled with a ghostly vortex Aether foam. We follow the brilliantly gifted experimentalists Hertz, discoverer of radio, Michelson with his search for the Aether wind, and Foucault and Fizeau with their spinning mirrors and lightbeams across the rooftops of Paris. The difficulties of sending messages faster than light, using quantum entanglement, and the reality of the quantum world conclude this saga.

The purpose of this book is to provide a theoretical foundation and an understanding of atomistic spindynamics, and to give examples of where the atomistic LandauLifshitzGilbert equation can and should be used. The contents involve a description of density functional theory both from a fundamental viewpoint as well as a practical one, with several examples of how this theory can be used for the evaluation of ground state properties like spin and orbital moments, magnetic formfactors, magnetic anisotropy, Heisenberg exchange parameters, and the Gilbert damping parameter. This book also outlines how interatomic exchange interactions are relevant for the effective field used in the temporal evolution of atomistic spins. The equation of motion for atomistic spindynamics is derived starting from the quantum mechanical equation of motion of the spinoperator. It is shown that this lead to the atomistic LandauLifshitzGilbert equation, provided a BornOppenheimerlike approximation is made, where the motion of atomic spins is considered slower than that of the electrons. It is also described how finite temperature effects may enter the theory of atomistic spindynamics, via Langevin dynamics. Details of the practical implementation of the resulting stochastic differential equation are provided, and several examples illustrating the accuracy and importance of this method are given. Examples are given of how atomistic spindynamics reproduce experimental data of magnon dispersion of bulk and thinfilm systems, the damping parameter, the formation of skyrmionic states, allthermal switching motion, and ultrafast magnetization measurements.

This textbook is designed for use in a standard physics course on optics at the sophomore level. The book is an attempt to reduce the complexity of coverage found in Modem Optics to allow a student with only elementary calculus to learn the principles of optics and the modern Fourier theory of diffraction and imaging. Examples based on real optics engineering problems are contained in each chapter. Topics covered include aberrations with experimental examples, correction of chromatic aberration, explanation of coherence and the use of interference theory to design an antireflection coating, Fourier transform optics and its application to diffraction and imaging, use of gaussian wave theory, and fiber optics will make the text of interest as a textbook in Electrical and bioengineering as well as Physics. Students who take this course should have completed an introductory physics course and math courses through calculus Need for experience with differential equations is avoided and extensive use of vector theory is avoided by using a one dimensional theory of optics as often as possible. Maxwell’s equations are introduced to determine the properties of a light wave and the boundary conditions are introduced to characterize reflection and refraction. Most discussion is limited to reflection. The book provides an introduction to Fourier transforms. Many pictures, figures, diagrams are used to provide readers a good physical insight of Optics. There are some more difficult topics that could be skipped and they are indicated by boundaries in the text.

The Les Houches Summer School 2015 covered the emerging fields of cavity optomechanics and quantum nanomechanics. Optomechanics is flourishing and its concepts and techniques are now applied to a wide range of topics. Modern quantum optomechanics was born in the late 70s in the framework of gravitational wave interferometry, initially focusing on the quantum limits of displacement measurements. Carlton Caves, Vladimir Braginsky, and others realized that the sensitivity of the anticipated largescale gravitationalwave interferometers (GWI) was fundamentally limited by the quantum fluctuations of the measurement laser beam. After tremendous experimental progress, the sensitivity of the upcoming next generation of GWI will effectively be limited by quantum noise. In this way, quantumoptomechanical effects will directly affect the operation of what is arguably the world’s most impressive precision experiment. However, optomechanics has also gained a life of its own with a focus on the quantum aspects of moving mirrors. Laser light can be used to cool mechanical resonators well below the temperature of their environment. After proofofprinciple demonstrations of this cooling in 2006, a number of systems were used as the field gradually merged with its condensed matter cousin (nanomechanical systems) to try to reach the mechanical quantum ground state, eventually demonstrated in 2010 by pure cryogenic techniques and a year later by a combination of cryogenic and radiationpressure cooling. The book covers all aspects—historical, theoretical, experimental—of the field, with its applications to quantum measurement, foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Essential reading for any researcher in the field.

This handbook is aimed at helping users of PMTs who are faced with the challenge of designing sensitive light detectors for scientific and industrial purposes. The raison d’être for photomultipliers (PMTs) stems from four intrinsic attributes: large detection area, high, and noiseless gain, and wide bandwidth. Detection involves a conversion process from photons to photoelectrons at the photocathode. Photoelectrons are subsequently collected and increased in number by the action of an incorporated electron multiplier. Photon detection, charge multiplication, and many PMT applications are statistical in nature. For this reason appropriate statistical treatments are provided and derived from first principles. PMTs are characterized by a range of photocathodes offering detection over UV to infrared wavelengths, the sensitivities of which can be calibrated by National Laboratories. The optical interface between light sources and PMTs, particularly for diffuse or uncollimated light, is sparsely covered in the scientific literature. The theory of light guides, Winston cones, and other light concentrators points to means for optimizing light collection subject to the constraints of Liouville’s theorem (étandue). Certain PMTs can detect single photons but are restricted by the limitations of unwanted background ranging in magnitude from a fraction of a photoelectron equivalent to hundreds of photoelectrons. These sources, together with their correlated nature, are examined in detail. Photomultiplier biasing requires a voltage divider comprising a series of resistors or active components, such as FETs. Correct biasing provides the key to linear operation and so considerable attention is given to the treatment of this topic. Electronic circuits and modules that perform the functions of charge to voltage conversion, pulse shaping, and impedance matching are analysed in detail.

Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics and other related areas (including telecommunications). The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, optical cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics, modulation techniques and fiber optics, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. Among the latter are such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a buildup cavity or periodically poled waveguide, impedance matching into a cavity and astigmatism in ring cavities. A detailed discussion of laser frequencylocking is provided, prefaced by an introduction to linear system and servomechanism theory. The generation of a “discriminant” for laser frequencylocking using a passive cavity, an atomic resonance or a molecular resonance is analyzed. Semiconductor lasers are described in great detail, since they are rapidly becoming the most common laser source in the laboratory. Fiber lasers are increasingly becoming the choice for frequencystable solidstate sources and are described in the chapter on fiber optics. The treatment of optical fibers uses the simple “scalar approximation” and a number of fiberoptic devices are described and analyzed using this theory. Several recent developments are discussed, such as frequency metrology using femtosecond laser combs or combs derived from fourwave parametric interactions in microtoroids. In order to derive the greatest benefit from the material in the book, the reader should have a working knowledge of intermediate electromagnetic theory, elementary quantum mechanics and optics.

This book is devoted to the physics and technology of diode lasers based on selforganized quantum dots (QD). It addresses the fundamental and technology aspects of QD edgeemitting and verticalcavity surfaceemitting lasers, reviewing their current status and future prospects. The theoretically predicted advantages of an ideal QD array for laser applications are discussed and the basic principles of QD formation using selforganization phenomena are reviewed. Structural and optical properties of selforganized QDs are considered with a number of examples in different material systems. The book includes recent achievements in controlling the QD properties such as the effect of vertical stacking, changing the matrix bandgap and the surface density of QDs. The book is also focused on the use of selforganized quantum dots in laser structures, fabrication and characterization of edge and surfaceemitting diode lasers, their properties and optimization. Special attention is paid to the relationship between structural and electronic properties of QDs and laser characteristics. The threshold and power characteristics of the stateoftheart QD lasers are also demonstrated. Issues related to the longwavelength (1.3um) lasers on a GaAs substrate are also addressed and recent results on InGaAsNbased diode lasers presented for the purpose of comparison.

This book is primarily intended to be used in optics teaching from undergraduate to graduate level. It is assumed that an elementary course on optics has previously been studied, but all the key concepts of wave optics and light propagation are introduced where needed, and illustrated graphically. A recurring theme is that simple building blocks such as plane and spherical waves can be summed to construct useful solutions. Fourier methods and the angularspectrum approach are used extensively, especially to provide a unified approach to Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction. Particular attention is paid to analysing topics in contemporary optics—propagation, dispersion, laser beams and waveguides, apodization, tightly focused vector fields, unconventional polarization states, and light–matter interactions. Throughout the text the principles are applied through worked examples and the book is copiously illustrated with more than 240 figures. The 200 endofchapter exercises offer further opportunities for testing the reader’s understanding.