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The Gorbachev Factor$
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Archie Brown

Print publication date: 1997

Print ISBN-13: 9780192880529

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0192880527.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 29 July 2021

The Power of Ideas and the Power of Appointment

The Power of Ideas and the Power of Appointment

(p.89) Chapter 4 The Power of Ideas and the Power of Appointment
The Gorbachev Factor

Archie Brown (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

A back‐handed tribute to the power of ideas had been paid by the Soviet leadership prior to Gorbachev's coming to power through the lengths to which they went not only to promote official Marxism‐Leninism but also to keep out of circulation any heterodox political ideas. Gorbachev embraced new concepts more boldly than any previous General Secretary and engaged in a sharp struggle with conservative opponents of change within the Soviet establishment to have thinking that was radically new in the Soviet context accepted and acted upon. To some extent, the fresh ideas were codified into another orthodoxy known as ‘New Thinking’ or ‘New Political Thinking’, but the new openness meant that this was a fast‐changing body of doctrine, in which, for example, an endorsement by Gorbachev of ‘socialist pluralism’ quite rapidly was broadened into advocacy of ‘political pluralism’. Gorbachev's power of appointment went hand in hand with his support of new ideas. He was able to change the balance of influence before he could alter the balance of power, for he had a much freer hand in choosing aides and advisers than he had in elevating an ally to the Politburo. His changes to that body were also important, however, especially his rapid promotion of Alexander Yakovlev. Gorbachev's own ideas evolved in his discussions both with domestic advisers and with foreign politicians, especially such West European social democrats as Felipe Gonzalez. Conceptual change is an important species of political innovation in any society, especially in a system, such as the Soviet one, in which all political actions were required to adhere to an officially sanctioned ideology. Support for perestroika (reconstruction), democratization, pluralism, and glasnost (openness, transparency) and other heterodox ideas amounted to a conceptual revolution that had profound implications for Soviet politics and society.

Keywords:   advisers, conceptual revolution, democratization, glasnost, Felipe Gonzalez, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Thinking, perestroika, pluralism, Alexander Yakovlev

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