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Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences$
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Vaclav Smil

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195168754

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2006

DOI: 10.1093/0195168755.001.0001

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Rationalized Production:

Rationalized Production:

Mechanization, Automation, Robotization

(p.139) 4 Rationalized Production:
Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Vaclav Smil (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

Mechanization — a key trend of pre-WWI technical advances — intensified in all industrial sectors and reached new levels with automation and robotization after WWII. Major advances made in coal mining, oil and gas extraction, and in key manufacturing sectors such as car making benefited not only from ingenious robotization, but also from new methods of organization and flexible production. Agriculture also became much less labor intensive thanks to new high energy subsidies for machines and agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides).

Keywords:   coal mining, oil and gas extraction, car making, flexible production, agriculture, energy subsidies, agrochemicals

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