This chapter explains the biological synergies of malnutrition, parasitic and infectious diseases, and immune response that are specific to HIV transmission, and widespread among poor populations in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the transition countries. It draws on extensive medical literature that demonstrates that malnutrition, malaria, soil-transmitted helminths and other worms, schistosomiasis (and its genital lesions and inflammation, which resemble sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs), and other parasites increase HIV viral load and viral shedding, and hence increase the risk of HIV transmission.
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