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Unbounded WholenessBon, Dzogchen, and the Logic of the Nonconceptual$
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Anne Carolyn Klein and Tenzin Wangyal

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195178494

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2006

DOI: 10.1093/0195178491.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 01 December 2021

Authentication and Authenticity

Authentication and Authenticity

Authenticity 47.1–53.6

(p.25) 1 Authentication and Authenticity
Unbounded Wholeness

Anne Carolyn Klein (Contributor Webpage)

Geshe Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche

Oxford University Press

Most striking about the title Authenticity of Open Awareness: A Collection of the Essential Reasonings (gTan tshigs gal mdo rig pa'i tshad ma) is its inclusion of key terms from two prominent and radically disparate streams of discourse. This book shows that tshad ma, the Tibetan translation of the classic term pramāna, most literally means “measure” in the sense of applying an authoritative standard. To take the authentic, valid, or correct measure of an object is to know it authentically. A mind capable of taking the correct measure of its object, whether through direct perception or correct reasoning, is a valid, authentic mind. To validate or authenticate is a key concept in Buddhist epistemology and central to the thought of Dignāga and Dharmakīrti.

Keywords:   Authenticity, Tibet, open awareness, tshad ma, Pramāna

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