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Calendar and CommunityA History of the Jewish Calendar, 2nd Century BCE to 10th Century CE$
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Sacha Stern

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780198270348

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198270348.001.0001

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The Rabbinic Calendar: Development and History

The Rabbinic Calendar: Development and History

(p.155) 4 The Rabbinic Calendar: Development and History
Calendar and Community

Sacha Stern (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

The calendar described in the Mishnah and Tosefta (early third century c.e.) is purely empirical, both in its intercalation procedure and in its determination of the new moon. But in the Amoraic period (third–fifth centuries), as attested in the Talmud, calendrical rules were introduced, which eventually led to the transformation of the rabbinic calendar into a fixed, calculated scheme. A fixed rabbinic calendar is unlikely to have been formally instituted, e.g. in 359 c.e. by Hillel, as is commonly believed. Rabbinic sources indicate that, even in the Geonic period, the calculated calendar had not reached its final form; this only came about in the ninth century.

Keywords:   development, fixed, Geonic, Hillel, Mishnah, rabbinic calendar, rules, Talmud, Tosefta

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