After the defeat of the 1848 revolutions, Marx and Engels turned their attention to two developments that forced them to rethink their approach to national issues: colonial expansion outside Europe and the rise of working‐class movements displaying a variety of dispositions to nationalism. In revising their policies towards national movements in Ireland, India, and China, the two men upgraded the role of national self‐determination within their internationalist strategy. At the same time, their work in the First International led them to clarify distinctions between hegemonic and defensive nationalism, enlightened patriotism, and uncritical support for national leaderships.
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