- Title Pages
- Preface
- Introduction
- I.1 About Choice
- I.2 Processes of Choice
- I.3 Democratic Choice
- I.4 Budget Allocation and Priority
- I.5 Ramsey's Savings Rule
- II.1 Utility Hypothesis
- II.2 Algebra of Revealed Preference
- II.3 Combinatorics of Demand
- II.4 Separable Utility
- II.5 Direct and Indirect Utility
- II.6 Efficiency and Inefficiency
- III.1 Price and Quantity Levels
- III.2 The True Index
- III.3 Fisher and Byushgens
- III.4 The Four‐Point Formula
- III.5 Wald's ‘New Formula’
- IV.1 Opportunity Models
- IV.2 Leontief's Input‐Output
- IV.3 The Market
- IV.4 Sraffa's Prices
- IV.5 General Economic Equilibrium
- IV.6 Von Neumann's Economic Model
- V.1 Optimal Programming
- V.2 Convex Programming
- V.3 Linear Programming
- V.4 Minimum Paths
- V.5 Distribution Matrices
- VI.1 Calculus of Propositions
- VI.2 Algebra of Relations
- VI.3 Intersections and Fixed Points
- Bibliography
- Index

# The Market

# The Market

- Chapter:
- (p.275) IV.3 The Market
- Source:
- Logic of Choice and Economic Theory
- Author(s):
### S. N. Afriat

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press

This is the third of six chapters on the logic of price. It deals with the phenomenon of the market, and starts with a discourse on the ‘logic of price’ and a critique of the supply and demand theory. The considerations are taken further with reference to a very simple but none the less adequate linear market model, with an appeal to theorems about distribution matrices known from the theory of Markov processes; a further treatment, without the linearity, involves the KKM lemma. Global stability for a loosely defined *tâtonnement* is demonstrated from a convergence of infinite products of distribution matrices, analogous to the familiar convergence of powers. The nine sections of the chapter are: the logic of price; supply and demand; price formation; market functions; intercept and slope; linear markets; *tâtonnement*; continuous markets; and uniqueness and stability.

*Keywords:*
continuous markets, distribution matrices, KKM lemma, linear market model, market, market functions, market models, Markov processes, price, supply and demand theory, tâtonnement

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- Title Pages
- Preface
- Introduction
- I.1 About Choice
- I.2 Processes of Choice
- I.3 Democratic Choice
- I.4 Budget Allocation and Priority
- I.5 Ramsey's Savings Rule
- II.1 Utility Hypothesis
- II.2 Algebra of Revealed Preference
- II.3 Combinatorics of Demand
- II.4 Separable Utility
- II.5 Direct and Indirect Utility
- II.6 Efficiency and Inefficiency
- III.1 Price and Quantity Levels
- III.2 The True Index
- III.3 Fisher and Byushgens
- III.4 The Four‐Point Formula
- III.5 Wald's ‘New Formula’
- IV.1 Opportunity Models
- IV.2 Leontief's Input‐Output
- IV.3 The Market
- IV.4 Sraffa's Prices
- IV.5 General Economic Equilibrium
- IV.6 Von Neumann's Economic Model
- V.1 Optimal Programming
- V.2 Convex Programming
- V.3 Linear Programming
- V.4 Minimum Paths
- V.5 Distribution Matrices
- VI.1 Calculus of Propositions
- VI.2 Algebra of Relations
- VI.3 Intersections and Fixed Points
- Bibliography
- Index