Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Quality of Life$

Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780198287971

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198287976.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 03 August 2020

(p.449) Index of Subjects

(p.449) Index of Subjects

Source:
The Quality of Life
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
abortion 208
absoluteness 146, 147, 148–52, 154, 155–6
abstract liberalism 305, 306–7, 308–9
achievement:
and freedom of choice 35, 40
of well‐being 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43–4, 49, 54
ad hominem mode of practical reason 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 225
addiction 211
advantage, access to 28, 45, 54
affiliation 264, 266, 267
age:
and income 377–9
and opportunity 124
agency achievement 35, 37, 49, 54
agency freedom 35, 49, 54, 110
Amish culture 153
Anabaptists 204
androgyny as ideal norm 291, 292, 293
apodeictic mode of practical reason 210, 211, 213, 214
appetites, bodily 252–4, 263
autonomy:
personal, see self‐determination
preference 187–8
Aztec culture 153, 181, 226
basic capabilities 40–1, 45
basic needs 40, 89–91
belief systems 204
best interests principle 111–12
biographical transitions 223–4
biological difference and male/female roles 292
biology and conceptions of human nature 290, 293–4
body, human 263–4
capability 3, 10, 16–29, 30, 54, 59, 84–5, 441, 442–3
and Aristotelian view of human good 46–7
basic 40–1, 45
change of 87
and poverty 40–2
and well‐being 30–49, 62–6
capability sets 38–9, 43, 63
evaluation of 64–5
cardinal utility 365, 383, 384, 387–8, 426
care, ethic of 311
causal connection, notion of 151–2
choice, freedom of, see freedom of choice
climatic differences, welfare implications of 375–6
coercion 315, 316, 320
state 55, 57–8, 59
cognitive capability 264, 266–7
commoditization 407–8
commodity bundles 439, 440, 442–3, 444
communism 255, 267
communitarian critique of abstract justice 307–9
community and life‐style 428–9
comparative reasoning 216
CONRAD axiom 343, 345, 351
consumer theory 39, 365, 403, 422–3, 424–5
consumption sets 424–5, 428, 438, 440 n.
contractarianism 398–402, 407, 410, 413
and pluralism 404–6
contractualist moral theory 196–7, 203–5
cost of living index number 422, 433 n.
courage 249
criteria: use in rational arbitration of differences 214–15
cultural imperialism 182
cultural interaction 262
cultural tradition 4
contextual responsiveness to 4, 257–9
and the nature of experience 252–4, 261–3
death:
fear of 252
deception 315, 316
deletion of irrelevant countries (DIC) axiom 343–4, 345, 350
demented patients, life‐sustaining treatment decisions for 104–5
dependence, relations of 320–1
desire:
limitations of 325–6
sexual 252, 253–4
desire fulfilment 134–5, 138, 191–3, 282–3, 299–300
desire theories 186–95, 202
development, concept of 232
development economics and the value of lives 201, 202
disability 123–4
disease states: effect on quality of life 116–26
distributive justice, international 311–12
domain axiom 344, 345, 351, 356, 358
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care 111
(p.450) earnings profile 377–9
economics, development, see development economics
economics of migration 425–6, 430–1
education, sexual discrimination in 294
effort, reward for 14–15, 60
egalitarianism:
and the distribution of health 353
emotion:
and reason 239
emotivism 208
endogenous tastes 425–6
environmental conditions as measures of welfare 90, 91
envy 420, 421
Epicureans 239
epistomological individualism 56
equality 54
of capability 16–29
of opportunity 100
of resources 30
sexual 284
of welfare 10–16
ethical concepts:
formation and definition of 248
non‐absoluteness of 145–6, 147–8
ethical individualism 56
ethical intuitions 394–7, 412
ethical progress 248–9
ethical statements, verifiability of 143–4
ethics, medical 95–114, 133
evaluative space 32–3
expensive tastes 11, 12–13, 15
experience and cultural tradition 252–4, 261–3
explanation:
phenomenological 212
scientific 213–21
externalities, theory of 405–6
fact‐value dichotomy 143–5
and relativism 146–8
fairness and the standard of living 420–1
family size, welfare implications of 374–5, 376
family structures 310–11
women's position in 320
fear 252
feminist politics:
and abstract principles of justice 305–7, 311
and sexual division of activity 292
and theories of human nature 288–9
foundationalism 213, 216, 230
freedom:
state protection of 56–8
well‐being 35, 36, 39, 43, 44–5, 49, 54
freedom of choice 15, 23–5, 44, 60–1
and achievement 35, 40
and capability 33–5
friendship 256, 264
functional capacities:
agent‐specific 127, 128, 134
primary 117–19, 122–4, 127, 128, 135, 136
functionings 3, 10, 21–2, 25–6, 30, 31–2, 43, 45, 54, 136, 197, 202, 442, 443–4
problems of measurability 63–4
relevant for well‐being 36–7
Gedulgig v. Aiello 293 n.
general equilibrium theory 424–5
generosity 255
goods:
as measures of well‐being 18, 19
non‐utility effect of, see Midfare
government:
role in provision of good human life 265
happiness 98, 125, 128, 137, 282 n.
health care and medical ethics 95–114
health distribution, allocation of resources in 339–57, 358–61
health needs, quantifiability of 347
health policy measures of the quality of life 114–26
Health Status Index (HSI) 117, 119
hedonic welfare 11
hedonism 189, 190
hedonistic theories 96, 98, 186, 202
homosexuality 253–4
honour 229
household tasks 401–2
human beings, life of 226–7, 274
human functioning approach to gender issues 328–31
human nature and the sexual division of activity 284–5, 287–96, 300–1
human rights 56–7, 58, 206–7, 227–8, 404
humility 250
humour 264–5
hunger and thirst 252, 253, 263
ideal theories of a good life 97, 98
illness and injury: effect on quality of life 116–26
improbability and intuition 394, 395, 396–7
income(s):
and age 377–9
and capabilities 41–2
and climatic differences 375–6
evaluation of 367–84, 388, 390–1
and family size 374–5, 376
(p.451)
and standard of living 422–3, 424, 433–4
utility function of 364
inequality 421–2
sexual 283, 284
and social democracy 80, 81
studies of 79
inertial theories 216
infant mortality 115–16, 353, 359–60
infant survival, rate of (RIS) 339, 340, 341, 342, 345, 353
infants:
emotional development of 264
life‐sustaining treatment decisions for 105–6
informed consent doctrine in medicine 106–9, 113
informed desire theory 187, 188, 189, 282–3
insurance, notion of 398–9, 410–11
intentional notions 151–2
international justice 307–9, 311–12
intersubjectivity 180
intuitions:
ethical 394–7, 412
and improbability 394, 395, 396–7
Jews 204, 429
justice:
abstract 304–10
distributive justice 311–12
gender, see gender justice
for impoverished providers 303–4, 319–21
international 307–9, 311–12
and plurality 313–17
principles of 314–16
theories of 303, 304–5, 397
and vulnerability 318–21
law and ethical progress 249
level of living:
assessment of 76–8
concept of 72–6
Scandinavian studies on 67–82, 84–94
Leximin rule 353, 360
liberal feminism 305–7
liberal theory 55, 56–8
liberalism, abstract 305, 306–7, 308–9
liberty:
worth of 58, 59 see also freedom
life expectancy 115, 353
life plans 115–16
life‐style 427–32, 438–9
life‐style breakdown 429, 431–2
life‐sustaining medical treatment 102–14
literacy 258
living standards, see standard of living
living will 111
lottery index of standard of living 423–4, 434
love 264
medical ethics 95–114, 133
Megalopsuchia 244, 250
midfare 18, 19–20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 42–3, 45
migration and the standard of living 425–6, 430–1, 438
monotonicity (MON) axiom 341–2, 349–50, 358–61
moral argument, role of well‐beingin 195–9
moral judgements, see ethical statements; ethics
moral scepticism 208
moral theories, limitations on 394–7
moral theory, contractualist 196–7, 203–5
moral transitions 221–2
morality 169–71
morbidity 114–15
mortality 263, 266
mortality rates 114–16
motion, theories of 216
motivational change 239
Natanson v. Kline 108
naturalism 211–12, 213, 230
Nazism 172, 209
need satisfaction 26, 73
needs:
basic 40, 89–91
and wants 92
nepotism 169–70
new‐born infants, see infants
non‐cognitivism 144–5, 147
non‐liberal theory 55–6
objective indicators: use in welfare research 77–8, 91–4
objective list theories 188–9, 202 see also substantive good theories
objectivity:
in ethical judgements 97–9
and the science–ethics distinction 143–56, 158–63
and social meaning 165–77, 178–84
and transcendental argument 271–4
objects of value 32–3
‘offensive tastes' 11–12
opportunity, equality of 100
opportunity range 124
pain 264
Pareto optimality 341, 350
particularism 257
passion and reason 239
paternalism 4, 108–9
patriarchal society 182
perception and objectivity 165–6
phenomenological explanation 212
pleasure 264
plenitude 217
(p.452) pluralism:
and contractarianism 404–6
and the standard of living 393–408, 410–16
plurality and justice 313–17
political distribution, Aristotelian theory of 46
political objectives, legitimacy of 55
positivism 143–4, 155–6
applied to economics 418
poverty:
and capability 40–2
women and 303–, 319–21
practical reason 208–30, 232–6, 238–40, 264, 266, 267, 272, 274–5
preference autonomy, principle of 187–8
preference change 126
preference drift 372
preference hedonism 186, 189 n.
preference satisfaction 11, 96–7, 98, 107, 193, 194 see also desire fulfilment; desire theories
preferences 79, 192–5, 396, 397, 425–7, 428, 438
endogenous 425–6
future 193
non‐autonomous 126
past 192, 193
as reasons for action 192–3
and the standard of living 418, 419–20
strength, of 419–20
presupposition and transcendental argument 272–3
primary functional capacities 117–19, 122–4, 127, 128, 135, 136
primary goods 59, 197, 202
equality of 12, 13, 16
property rights 58
punishment, theories of 397
purchasing power 422–3
Quality of Life Index (QLI) 117, 119
radical feminism 311
reason:
and emotion 239
practical, see practical reason
reference, theory of 152
refined functioning 40
reflective equilibrium 394, 395
regret 426–7
relativism 145
and the fact–value dichotomy 146–8
and virtue theory 243
religion 198, 199, 202, 405
resource allocation and the distribution of health 339–57, 358–61
resources:
equality of 30
individual’s command over 72–3, 88–9, 400–1, 414–15 see also capability
rights:
property 58
satisfaction:
and level of living 77, 78
of needs 26, 73
of preferences, see preference satisfaction
Scandinavia: level of living studies 67–82, 84–94
scepticism 56, 208, 213, 214, 271
Schloendorff v. Society of New York Hospitals 108
science:
and the notion of absoluteness 148–50
primitive concepts of 362
science–ethics distinction 143–6, 158–63
scientific explanation 213–21
scientific statements, verifiability of 143
scientific transitions 215–21, 236–8
self‐determination 97, 113, 125, 126, 275
in health‐care treatment decision‐making 107–10
sexual desire 252, 253–4
sexual division of activity 280–301
sexual inequality 283, 284
Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) 117–19
sociability, see affiliation
social choice theory 396–7
social criticism 181–2
social democracy and the problem of inequality 80–1
social indicators: use in welfare research 77–8, 91–4
social liberalism and the problem of poverty 80, 81
social meaning and objectivity 165–77, 178–84
social policy:
redistributive model of 80–1
residual welfare model of 80
social reference process and income evaluation 379–81, 383
social relations as measures of welfare 91
social reporting, theory of 81–2
social sciences, philosophical approaches to 233–4
social security 85
sovereignty of states 312
standard of living 37–8, 417–34, 437–44
and life‐style 429–30
meaning of 417–18
and migration 430–1
and pluralism 339–408, 410–16
(p.453) state:
coercive nature of 55, 57–8, 59
and preservation of rights and freedom 56–8 see also government
states, sovereignty of 312
stoics 239, 250, 254
subjective indicators: use in welfare research 77–8, 91–4
subjectivism 113, 208, 211–12, 213, 214
subjectivity in ethical judgements 97–9
substantive good 194, 196–7, 198–9
theories of 189, 190, 191, 192, 202–3 see also objective list theories
substituted judgement principle 111–12
success theory 187
Swedish level of living surveys 67–82, 84–7, 88
symmetry axiom 342, 350, 352 n.
tastes 420, 428, 438, 439–40
determination of 425–7
endogenous 425–6
expensive 11, 12–13, 15
‘offensive’ 11–12 see also preferences
taxation 364
teleology 291
thirst 252, 253
tradition, see cultural tradition
transcendental argument and objectivity 271–4
transitions 220–6
biographical 223–4
moral 221–2
scientific 215–21
truth 146–7, 158–9
correspondence theory of 150–1, 152, 158, 160
unemployment, psychological effects of 62
UNICEF 354, 355
utilitarian evaluation 32, 33
utilitarianism 9, 55, 136–7, 210, 211, 214
and the distribution of health 342, 352–3, 354, 359
utility 18, 19, 136, 325, 423
cardinal 365, 383, 384, 387–8, 426
economic approach to 363–6
maximization of 403
utility function of income 364
value of human lives 185–6, 201–2
value judgements:
verifiability of 143–4, 147 see also fact–value dichotomy
value‐objects 32–3
value‐purposes 35–6
values:
conflict of 331–3
prudential 134, 136, 137, 138–9
vector analysis 99, 137, 138
verbal labels, emotional value of 366–7, 370, 389–90
victimization 315, 320
violence 206, 315
virtual standards and the evaluation of incomes 373
virtues:
non‐relative 244–67
and relativism 243
vulnerability and justice 318–21
Walrasian equilibrium allocation 351 n.
welfare:
comparability of 381–3, 387–8, 389, 391
equality of 10–16
equality of opportunity for 10, 13, 17
hedonic 11
ratios 390–1
welfare research:
implementation decisions 84–7
Scandinavian approaches to 67–82, 84–94
use of social indicatorsin 77–8, 91–4
welfarist evaluation 33
well‐being 17–19, 23, 25
achievement of 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 43–4, 49, 54
and capability 30–49, 62–6
functionings relevant for 36–7 see also welfare
well‐being freedom 35, 36, 39, 43, 49, 54, 64, 65
women:
and desire fulfilment and limitations, 5, 282–3, 289–300
and family structures 320
and justice, see gender justice
as objects of exchange 172–5, 182–3
and poverty 303–4, 319–21
and the sexual division of activity 280–301
status of 228–9
World Health Organization (WHO) 345–52, 353, 354–7, 358, 359
worth, human 250
worth of liberty 58, 59