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Women, Culture, and DevelopmentA Study of Human Capabilities$

Martha C. Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover

Print publication date: 1995

Print ISBN-13: 9780198289647

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0198289642.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 20 June 2021

(p.470) Index of Subjects

(p.470) Index of Subjects

Source:
Women, Culture, and Development
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
a priorism 179, 200, 222–3
ability 164, 168
abortion 284, 344–5, 358–9, 363
abstract entities 201–2
abuse 284, 290, 312–13, 343
achievement 165–6, 180, 194, 262, 264, 266–9, 426, 439–40
as valuable functioning 153, 155–7, 160
action 72, 87, 97
goal oriented 209–10, 215–16, 221, 224
guiding 205, 207, 212–14
rational 217
activity rate ratio 52–3
actuality/possibility dualism 157–8, 162, 165, 167–9, 181
aesthetics 110
African Development Foundation 461
age 42, 456
agency capability 154, 165–6, 168
algorithm 179, 201, 219–21
All‐China Women's Federation 410
altruism 167, 211, 215, 279
analogy 231
analytic/synthetic dualism 201, 206
androgyny theory 443
animal force, emotion as 366–8, 371–6, 396
anticaste principle 332–3, 344–54, 356–8
apartheid 302
Aristotelian Social Democracy 145, 148, 160, 188, 235, 254
Aristotelianism 40, 66, 92–3, 95, 123, 125, 137, 144–6, 154–5, 170, 176, 180, 192, 267, 269, 407, 418, 429
assertiveness 447, 450
attachment 367–8, 391
authoritarianism 200, 420, 424
authority 226, 283
auxiliary to man, woman as 436–7
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee 39–40, 43–4, 51, 91, 239, 241, 299
belief:
emotion and 365, 368, 373–6, 378–10, 388–9, 394
fixation 213–14
formation 231
revisionary 200
beneficence 378–9, 385
biological difference 74, 76, 98, 106, 137–8, 229, 259, 264–5, 334–5, 337, 346–7, 349, 402, 441
body 76, 96, 98, 171, 174, 176–7, 418
Bradwell v. Illinois 337–8, 363–4
Buddhism 414
Califano v. Webster 340, 344
capability:
assault on universalism 67–72
concept of functioning in development policy 85–91
concept of human being 72–81
concept of 157–64
development 414
emotion and 360–95
ethic 182–6
feminism and common humanity 61–7
and functioning 105, 429, 431
functioning as pluralism 92–4
index 196, 320
and justice 191–6
levels 164–5, 174
limits 80
preference to 143–5
rights 186–91
types 164–9
valuable 163
valuation of 169–80
women as human beings 94–7
women and men 97–102
capitalism 229
care 438, 441, 442
caste system 10, 37–9, 53, 55, 91, 116, 127, 236–7, 240, 292, 301, 314, 321, 348, 352–3, 357, 359, 429
law and gender and 332–59
traditional seclusion and high 45–50
(p.471) childcare 96, 98, 264, 280–1, 286, 288–9, 307, 314, 322, 334–5, 342, 364, 391–2, 403, 413, 421, 428, 437, 453, 456
China, gender inequality in 11, 407–10, 417–25
false self‐consciousness 415–17
official voice 410–12
patriarchal tradition of Chinese thought 412–15
choice:
ability 78, 83, 93, 168
capability 94, 96, 175, 178, 419
career 313
Chinese women 421–2
emotion and 371
evil and 167
freedom and 135
freedom of 66, 71–2, 91, 157–60, 169, 174, 180, 192–4, 251, 410, 418, 423, 439
and functioning 154–5
individual 398
non‐interference 84
personal 309
political 5, 99
power 81
probability 212–13
and rationality 397
readiness 161–4
religious 187
resources and 111
rights 190
theory 231
utility and 123
well‐being 165–6
clarity 130–1, 135, 146–7
class, social 38, 45, 53–5, 226, 235–7, 274–5, 277, 282, 303, 310, 312–16, 388
emotion and 382–4
classism 313, 315
coercion 131, 147–9, 168, 184, 190, 223
collectivism 261
collectivity 447–8, 456
colonialism 1, 13, 125, 365, 396–7, 444–5, 448–52, 455
communication 138, 231, 235–6, 241, 247, 250
communism 355, 408–11, 416, 420, 423
communitarianism 110–12, 126–8, 138, 140–1, 148, 236, 299, 328–9, 402, 456
community 109, 267, 382, 428, 446, 448, 454, 457–9, 462–4
compassion 101, 157, 175–6, 233, 373, 378–9, 381, 398, 442 see also pity
competitiveness 463–4
complexity, interdependence, and global dialogical community 235–55
conditioning 442
confrontation, real and notional 247–50
Confucianism 409, 412–13, 422, 424–5
conscience, freedom of 306
conscientious objection 306
consciousness 54, 81–2, 374
false 123–4, 142, 144, 233, 274
false self‐ 415–17, 425
consensus:
overlapping 316
political 74–5, 171, 255
social 136, 137, 446
consequential sensitivity 188–9
consequentialism 186, 188–9
consistency 135, 146–8
constraints 137, 265, 283, 350, 352
contextualism 236
continuity 72–4, 237–8, 240, 252
contraception 358–9, 363
co‐operation 226, 233, 236, 304–5, 307
conflict 6, 10, 270, 288
correctness 260, 265, 268
cosmopolitan:
justice 140–2, 149
morality 140
Craig v. Boren 339
cross cultural:
assessment 418, 422, 425
concept of well‐being 407
dialogue 250–1
exchange 235–6, 244, 249
interpretation 181
standards 9
Cultural Revolution 412, 417
decision making 362–3, 445, 454–5, 461
decision theory 209
degradation 64
deliberation 231
democracy 8–9, 171, 182, 192, 223, 240, 253, 255, 266, 292, 300, 303–6, 321–2, 325, 327–9, 349
and rationality 225–34
democratization of inquiry 230, 233–4
demonstration 247
deontology 188–9, 254
dependence 11, 78–9, 148, 151, 284–7, (p.472) 292–3, 338, 342, 390–1, 393–4, 430, 436, 445, 448, 452, 457
deprivation 5, 6, 89–90, 107, 112, 116, 123–5, 142, 148, 155, 159, 170, 188, 195–6, 263, 270, 281–2, 284, 293, 302, 352, 355, 357, 416, 433, 439, 452
desire 123, 125, 160, 181, 262, 346, 352, 409, 436, 442
and power 230–4
devaluation of women 281, 284, 292, 313, 352, 393, 446, 450, 453
developing countries: commentary on women in 140–52
economic dominance 125
employment 2
equality 62
female vulnerability 365
free market 353
gender difference 115
justice 234
quality of life 7
sexual discrimination 332
status of women 10
tradition 116
welfare 52
women in 123, 138–40, 143, 259, 266, 397, 401, 426, 428, 431–2
development: agencies 458
capability 181–2
economics 6, 156, 385, 444
and functioning 194–5
human 63, 78, 172, 176, 184, 190, 310, 371, 392–3, 418
projects in Nigeria 452–3, 458–62
studies 279–81
theory 66–7, 285, 309, 444
difference: biological 74, 76, 98, 106, 137–8, 229, 259, 264–5, 334–5, 337, 346–7, 349, 402, 441
cultural 252, 274
historical and cultural 70–1, 92, 409
racial 275, 277
relevence of 118–19, 121–2, 125
dignity 14, 61, 252, 301, 317, 327, 377, 410, 433, 440, 451–2
disability 108, 304, 316, 346, 352
disadvantage 259, 292, 313, 316, 319, 321–2, 332, 336–7, 345, 348–9, 352, 409, 445, 451
discourse ethics 220–1, 223, 226, 254–5
discrimination:
concept of 443
homosexuality 403
institutions 225
intent and 226
prejudice 270
racial 339, 352
sexual 89, 90, 283, 285, 288
sexual and law 332–59
wage 50–1, 54 see also classism; racism; sexism
disowning 51
distribution 191–2, 235, 276
inequality 128
principles 194–6
dominance, economic 125
domination 143, 229, 253, 409, 413, 415–17, 423
earthwork 41, 43
ecological awareness 126, 172, 175–7, 250, 304, 418–19
economics 279, 282, 362, 371, 380, 383
development 6, 156, 386, 444
education 102
access 3, 13, 66, 88, 93, 99, 193, 226, 282, 333, 408
adequacy of 83–4, 86, 96, 419
anticaste principle and 356–8
capability 184
in developing countries 33, 44, 92
development economics 156
duty 95
enrolment in developing countries 16–28
enrolment in industrialized countries 29–31
equality 323, 349
female 364
lack of 89–91, 445, 449, 451, 453–4
male 360
in Mexico 427
military role and 98
moral 391
opportunity 2, 431
rationality and 386
social 382
social class and 50, 450
training 44, 410, 458–9
women 284, 354, 425
efficiency 263, 266, 268, 270
(p.473) egalitarianism 118, 121, 192–4, 240, 251–3, 305, 349, 439
élite 194–5, 233
emotion 9, 11, 78, 101, 121, 136, 177, 398, 441
empiricism 149
employment:
access 283–4
choice 84, 264, 277
comparison 89
constraints 341
denied 445
discrimination 33, 349
gender 338, 342–3
hours 334–5
inequality 13
in Mexico 427
opportunity 240, 357, 429–31
rights 83
women 239, 280, 301, 353
empowerment 15, 144, 149, 193, 233, 450, 452–3
engineering for women:
in developing countries 16–21
in industrialized countries 29–31
Enlightenment 12–13, 232, 236, 242, 252, 300, 303, 402
equality 5, 7–13, 33, 61–3, 84, 87, 95, 97, 99, 105–6, 115, 120, 122–5, 141–2, 193–4, 229, 251, 253, 262, 305, 307, 315, 317, 321, 323, 344–51, 352–5, 357–9, 361, 364–5, 386, 401
capability inequality in Mexico 426–32
femininity and personhood 433–43
gender inequality in China 407–25
gender and law 354–9
and justice 117–22
moral 324, 330
eroticism 403–4
essentialism 63, 65–6, 107, 109, 110, 171–2, 242–3, 251, 274–8, 312, 429
ethics 9, 68–71, 74–5, 95–6, 129, 135–7, 142–4, 146–8, 231, 376–7, 414, 439, 441–3
characteristics 216–18
Greek 206
inquiry 222–4
objectivity 131–2
and set theory 202
theory 262 see also development
ethnocentrism 244–7, 252
ethnos 244, 246–7
evaluation 71, 78, 82, 122, 169–72, 248–50, 419, 422
evil 167–8
evolution metaphor 214
excellence 182, 413–14, 421, 425
exclusion 71–2, 91, 106, 121, 315, 360, 461
excommunication 51
experience:
emotional 388–9
female 315, 417, 439, 453
imagination and 83
personal 92, 96, 440
women 433, 462
experiment 218–19
experimentalism 208
exploitation 38, 50, 54, 225, 229, 281, 285–6, 292, 315, 398
fact/value dichotomy 200–1, 207, 231
fairness, justice as 185, 261, 263–6, 299, 303–5, 307, 309, 314, 327–8
fallibilism 200, 208, 219, 222
family:
behaviour 260–71
care 97, 101, 421
concept of 12
as co‐operative body 6
economic analysis 7
extended 429
justice 308–9, 323
law 355
morality and 282
relationships 386
role of women in 322
structure 10, 12
as unit of society 412–13
as unit of study 279
famine 40–1, 127, 186, 189, 238, 287, 301, 420
fatalism 229
female/male gaps:
in developing countries 22–8
in industrialized countries 29–31
femininity, equality, and personhood 433–43
feminism 8, 10, 54, 70, 75, 95, 114, 119, (p.474) 148, 227, 229, 274–81, 283–4, 286, 290–1, 391, 396, 401–2, 404, 407, 415, 426, 431–2
justice theory 298–330
food‐for‐work schemes 37, 41–4, 116, 123, 238, 301, 318, 320
footbinding 293
freedom:
and achievement 156–7, 262, 265
agency 165
capability 83–4, 144, 149–50, 158, 427–8
capability and justice 266–9
of Chinese women 410–11, 416, 423, 425
conflict 166
consistency and 135
democratic 225
deprivation 110, 426
and justice 120, 141–2, 300, 303–5, 307
modernity and 253
personal 349
political and civil 320
positive/negative 182–6, 190
post modernism and 235
primary goods and 264
rights 188
social 199
theory 182
women 54, 64, 228, 285, 377
frequency theory of probability 210–12
friendship 84, 92, 96, 168, 175, 419
Frontiero v. Richardson 338–9
fulfilment 439–40
functioning, human 4–6, 62–3, 67, 70–1, 73, 78, 80, 82, 85–9, 91, 94–8, 101–2, 107–15, 137, 146, 148–9, 349, 365, 384, 386, 421, 424, 426–8
capability and 105, 266–8, 429, 431
and capability rights 186–7
deficient 193
and development 194–5
emotion and 361
incapability ethic and valuable 153–7
index 196
types of 164–9
valuation of 169–80
value of 391, 394
fundamentalism 420
game theory 260–1, 287
gender:
caste and law 332–59
discourse 399
division 11, 99, 101
and education 226
emotion and 398
human being and 419
identification 401–4, 447
inequality in different cultural contexts 274–8, 291–4
oppression, differences and similarities 278–91
generalization 10, 116, 294, 353
genital mutilation 293, 358, 396
goal rights system 188–9
goddess, woman as 438–43
goods:
approach 156, 158, 163, 195
conflict 177–80
fetishism 181
government 87, 93, 157, 159–60, 162, 169, 180, 184, 188, 190, 193–4, 239, 301, 312, 318, 352, 355
and Chinese ideology 407–12, 422
women in, in developing countries 16–21
Grameen Bank 44
gratitude 372–3, 380, 382, 388–9
Great Leap Forward movement 410
harassment, sexual 342–3, 345, 356, 358
HDI ranking of gender disparity 16–34
hermeneutics 248–9, 252
hermeticism, cultural 244–7, 250
heteronomy 151
hierarchy:
capability 165
caste system 240
of family 279
national 233
oppression and social 136, 223
power and 225–6
relational 203
social 413–14
social status 38
Hindu Magazine, The 14
Hinduism 12, 45, 301, 322, 364, 379, 434
homosexuality 403
hope 367, 369, 372–3
hormones 397
household:
female headed 39, 44, 47, 281–2, 285, 307
(p.475)
head of 7, 13, 260, 307–8, 317
male headed 279
management 96–9
as unit of study 279
housework 2, 89, 91, 100, 275, 280, 283, 285, 288, 308, 322, 334–5, 364, 411, 414, 428, 436
human being, concept of 63, 67–8, 71–80, 83–5, 106–7, 167, 172–3, 177, 252, 254–5, 264, 299, 403, 418–22, 424
in development policy 85–91
Human Development Report (1993) 2, 4–5, 7, 12, 84–6, 88
human nature 137–8
humanism 299
humanness 70, 76, 80, 87, 95, 105–6, 170, 179, 193
hunger 76–7, 80, 92, 125, 127, 173, 190, 196, 372, 418, 420
iconography 434–5, 438
idealism 244
Igbo tradition 444–64
Ikporo‐Onitsha 446, 451–9, 461–3
imagery 231
imagination 77–8, 83, 172, 175, 177, 368, 385, 418–19
imperialism 1–2, 67, 71, 108, 116, 125–8, 131, 140, 225, 232–4, 241, 253, 407, 426, 431
incommensurability 245, 250, 420, 431
incompleteness, personal 367, 376, 394, 396–7
independence 53–5, 99, 101, 140, 148–52, 357, 398, 422, 436, 447, 450
and autonomy 148–52
indispensability 224
individualism 79, 110, 369, 382–4, 396–8, 410, 420, 440, 450, 456–7
induction theory 219
industrialization 459–60
inequality and theories of justice 259–70
co‐operation conflict 260–2
freedoms, capabilities, and justice 266–8
gender and justice 268–70
practice and theory 259–60
Rawlsian theory 263–6
utilitarian justice 262–3
infanticide 33
inferiority 62, 410, 412, 416, 423, 433, 435
inheritance 357, 359, 414
inpartiality and emotion 381–2
inquiry:
as co‐operation 219–23
democratization 221–2, 223
and politics 225–30
pragmatism and 247
institutions and emotions 371, 386–8
instrumentalism 411
instrumentality 199, 203, 436, 439
intelligence 206–7
intentionality 154, 160, 176–7, 210–11, 376
interaction:
causal 201–2, 204
social 84, 96, 226, 250–1, 253, 389, 392–3
interdependence 170, 189, 382
cultural complexity and 235–55
interference 183
internal/external capability 161–4, 181
internalism 171
International Monetary Fund 445, 460
interpretation 248–9, 249
intervention 219
intranslatability 245, 250
intuition 129, 135–6, 178, 180, 185, 251, 378, 392
intuitionism 208
isolation, social 145, 148, 430
judgement 397, 399
judiciary 322, 355–6, 387
justice:
and capability 84, 103, 144, 191–6, 419, 426
as capability 175
and concept of human being 97
concept of 235–6
cross cultural standards of 9
and culture 4
distribution 171, 254
emotion and 381
and equality 8, 117–22
and ethics 442
in family 283–9
feminist theory 298–330
gender 291
gender inequality and theories of 259–70
global 138–9
human 39, 95
human functioning 63, 94, 115
and law 14–15
(p.476)
‘oughts’; and 217
and preference 140–3, 146–7, 152
principles of 118–22, 125, 146–7, 149–52
and purdah 251
and reflection 416
right to employment 50–2, 54–5
social rules of 116–17
and society 421
subjectivity and 128
and tradition 1, 10
as value 131–2
justice theory 112, 233, 255, 388
gender and 274–83
justification 242, 247, 336
instrumental 209–11, 213–18, 221–2, 225
rights 187, 190–1
Kantianism 8, 148–51, 165, 177, 185, 223, 255, 369, 402, 407, 418, 423
kind inclusion 73–4
knowledge 67, 216, 221–2, 225–7, 229–31, 232
labour:
emotional 398
equality 42–3, 410
force participation 12, 38, 40–1, 44, 47–8, 52–5, 88–91, 98, 322–3, 343, 408, 410–11, 423, 430, 452
market 50
participation in developing countries 16–28
participation in industrialized countries 29–31
sexual division of 38, 40, 98, 100, 229, 277, 280, 282, 284, 286–8, 428–30
landlessness 40, 44–6, 51, 116, 238, 356–7, 359
laughter 79, 84, 107, 172, 175, 418–19
law 10–11, 33, 129, 255, 387, 427, 429
natural 208
legislation 308–10, 408
legitimacy 260–2, 265, 268, 292, 462–3
levels of human being 171–2
liberalism 10, 91, 93–4, 140, 142, 150, 170, 178, 180, 185, 236–7, 242, 252–3, 266, 309, 316, 328, 387, 411, 438
libertarianism 118–19, 141–2, 182, 268
life expectancy 33, 52–3, 83, 89, 116, 196
in developing countries 16–28
in industrialized countries 29–31
limitations, human 173, 177, 182
literacy 2, 12, 33, 88, 91, 196, 282, 356, 427, 453–4, 458–60, 462
in developing countries 16–28
loans 44, 50, 445
longevity 2–3, 156
maleness 227, 233, 393, 442
management for women, in developing countries 16–21
manipulation, cultural 199
marginalization of women 62, 445, 448, 451, 452
market:
free 352–4
mechanisms 11
marriage 42, 47–8, 54, 116, 277, 286–7, 308–9, 313, 343, 357, 403, 408, 413, 437
age in developing countries 16–21
Marxism 235, 369, 384
materialism 204
maternal functions 334–5, 397, 410
mathematics 129–30, 201
means and ends 191, 255
medicine 261, 320, 357, 401, 431
menstruation 397, 437
taboos 64, 90, 294
mentality 396, 409, 416
merit 135, 194, 226
metaphor 145–6, 214, 231
metaphysics 67–9, 74, 76, 87, 129–30, 137, 171, 181, 224, 226–7, 254, 434–5
theory 200–8
methodological solipsism 219
Mexico, capability inequality in 11, 426–32
Michael M. v. Sonoma County Supreme Court 340
military role 98, 340
mobility 77, 82, 97, 115, 172, 175, 178, 264, 320, 322, 418–19
social 45–6, 50, 240, 286
modernity 240–1, 243, 252–3, 410, 417, 423, 453
monism, cultural 244–5
morality:
and capability 86, 96, 167, 169
Christian 125
Confucianism and 412–13
disagreement 203
emotion and 379, 385
(p.477)
and family 282
and functioning 158
and gender 441–2
and humanness 87, 95, 139, 251
im‐ 437, 441
intuition 130
and justice 120, 317
law 129
objectivity of 225, 231, 299
‘oughts’; and 217
political 316
and power 94
properties 204–6
and relativism 128
respect 177
rights 188, 195–6
theory 369
and women's role 416
morbidity 259, 262–3, 267, 269
mortality 73, 76, 79, 80, 83, 87, 92, 171, 173–4, 182, 259, 261–3, 269, 418, 437
female 39, 52–3
infant 3, 88, 448
and life 65–6
rates 281
motherhood 437, 439, 442–3
motivation 141, 166–7, 211, 230, 380, 385, 430
movements:
mass 383–4
political 410
women's 43, 54, 116, 411–12
women's Councils in Nigeria 444–64
Muller v. Oregon 334–7, 345–6
multiculturalism 243, 274
multinationalism 243
myth 68, 73
narrative knowledge 241
nation 195–6, 233, 301
theory 192
National Council of Women's Societies 454
naturalism 214
networking 447, 450, 462
Nigeria, Igbo tradition and women's movements 12, 444
development prospects and women's organizations 459–64
status of women 445–51
women's organizations 451–9
Non‐Governmental Agencies in Nigeria 445, 460–2
normative:
properties 202
science 221
theory 8–9, 156, 166, 171, 174, 191, 227, 238, 251, 380
normativism 216–17, 221
norms:
cultural 239, 242, 288, 293, 458
ethical 146–7, 223
masculine 441
social 125, 127–8, 416, 422
traditional 407, 450
and validity 254–5
nourishment 81, 83, 89, 115, 149, 158, 160, 171, 174, 176, 190, 262, 266, 269, 320, 382, 419
nutrition 3, 7, 9, 13, 33, 43, 67, 76, 81–2, 93, 102, 114, 116, 178, 260, 264, 282, 284, 290, 301, 320, 333, 346, 357, 420, 431, 453
obedience 413, 415, 423, 425, 436
objectivity 8
in development ethics 128–31, 133–5, 139, 144
and justice 263
moral 225, 231, 299
as trait 442
and values 224
observation, passive 219
open society 199–20, 203, 224
opportunity 45, 164–5, 182, 184, 320, 350–1, 417
employment 33, 290–1
inequality of 2
original position, concept of 307–11, 316–18, 320
ostracism 51, 457–8
overwork 148, 282, 284
Pachbarol Working Women's Group 43
paternalism 5, 350, 460
perception 77–8, 172–3, 175, 418–19
perfectionism 149, 179, 184
(p.478) personality 392–3
personhood 106
Personnel Administrator v. Feeney 341
perspectivism 133
philosophy 118, 121, 133, 135–6, 229–30, 240, 244, 310, 365, 372–3, 378, 380, 386, 389, 394
Chinese 409, 412–15, 422
Indian 434–6, 439
influence 199
moral 203, 253–4
political 120, 307, 309
poverty of 146
practice in 200, 203–4, 209
pragmatism 200, 202
science and 201
Western 68–9, 227, 366–7, 376
planning life 83, 175, 422
Platonism 144
play 79, 84, 92, 107, 172, 175, 418–19
pleasure 77, 83, 155–6, 172, 175, 193, 262, 269, 374, 391, 418–19, 428
pluralism 177–9, 191, 266, 300
policy:
implications of gender inequality on 289–91
political:
distribution 192
freedom 88
impotence 322
justice 266
participation 1–3, 7, 9, 44, 83, 101, 175, 293, 306, 310, 333, 349, 356, 359, 408, 430, 446–8, 450–1, 453
reflection 369
theory 279
politics 71, 185, 371, 383, 416
and inquiry 225–30
population increase 45, 55
positive/negative functioning 165, 169
positivism 201, 219, 229, 246
post modernism 235–6, 241, 274
poverty 3, 40, 45–7, 52, 88–9, 140, 145, 170, 188, 196, 238–9, 282–3, 287, 315–16, 322, 344, 349, 352, 429, 453
and practical reasoning 146–8
power 9, 12, 90, 95, 160, 163, 169, 173, 181–2, 189, 221, 225–6, 239, 264, 270, 283–4, 286–90, 343, 349, 355, 397–8, 416, 422, 425, 443, 451, 455, 457
bargaining 54, 288, 290–1, 430
and desire 231–5
‐lessness 99, 145, 149, 280, 322, 391, 393, 435, 445–8
personal 161, 165, 168, 185
practical reasoning 11, 81–3, 92, 94, 96–8, 100–2, 110, 115, 141, 146–8, 150, 155, 159–60, 166, 172, 175–6, 418–22, 424
practice 200, 203–4, 209, 217, 222, 224
pragmatism 8, 99, 134, 225, 230, 232–3, 236, 247, 250–1, 399
preference 8, 89, 90, 112, 146–7, 149–51, 181, 262, 346, 350–2, 440
and capability 143–5
and justice 140–3
pregnancy 342, 344–5, 354, 403
prejudicial application of capabilities approach 71–2
press, freedom of 186
privilege 62, 136, 223, 225–6, 228, 233, 315, 349, 399, 450
probability 209–15, 221
problem solving 223–4, 326
productivity of women 12, 39, 52, 54, 283–4, 288, 291, 453
progress 235–6, 397–8, 401, 444
property 84–5, 188, 190, 355
psychiatry 231–2
psychology 137–8, 366, 374
cognitive 372
public/private dichotomy 279–80, 289–90, 292, 336–7, 429
purdah, occupational 40, 51, 116–17, 121, 126, 236, 238–9, 251, 293, 302, 314
quality of life 1–2, 5, 7, 10, 81–2, 84–5, 88–90, 99, 102, 108, 114, 156, 172, 181, 407, 418, 426, 459
Quality of Life (Nussbaum and Sen) 4, 6
race 226, 303, 305, 321, 399, 419, 463
racial difference 274, 276
racism 193–4, 228, 246, 253, 273, 306, 315, 386
ranking of capabilities 111–12, 144–5, 167–8, 178–80, 191, 269
rape 313, 340, 345, 357
ratio, sexual 3, 12, 33, 53, 259, 281
in developing countries 22–8
in industrialized countries 29–31
rationality:
concept 222–3
and democracy 225–34
human 140
justification 242
(p.479)
male/female 89
moral law and 255
practical 176
preference and 150
probability and 210–11
and realism 142
scientific 199
understanding 329
of women 121, 425, 442
realism 67–70, 142–4, 166, 200, 208
reciprocity 203, 221, 226, 251–2
reflexivity, social 238, 242
relationships:
family 54
gender 7, 88, 446–7
in‐laws 48–9, 51
rational 338
social 149, 151, 228, 398
relativism 4–7, 9, 11, 64–7, 71, 90–1, 105, 107, 109, 127–8, 138, 202, 225, 228, 232–3, 237, 240–4, 246–8, 250, 252, 254, 263, 274, 299, 328–9, 396, 429
gender inequality in China 407–25
religion 38, 66, 76, 84, 125–6, 137, 187, 274, 292, 300, 306, 309, 311–12, 314, 316–18, 320, 322, 330, 349, 364, 379, 409, 412, 419, 436
reproduction 84, 98, 333, 358–9, 412, 414
resources:
access to 162, 445
allocation 279, 283, 426–7, 453
availability 193, 194
distribution 5–6, 54, 81, 88, 91, 93, 252, 388, 451
equality 125
limitation 111
right to 14
respect 8, 100, 117, 252, 418, 438, 441, 442, 447
responsibility 264
restraint, social 116, 124
rhetoric 375, 398
rights:
capability 184, 186–91
civil 342
and commodities 170
economic 306
equal 303
gender 1
as goals 190
human 63, 87, 328, 332–3, 357, 359
justification 187, 190–1
libertarian 268
moral 304–5
negative 192
personal 355–7, 440
and philosophy 12, 254
political 2–3, 9
social 117, 119, 126, 290, 420, 424–8, 457
violation 195
women 14–15, 415, 436, 447, 450
role:
gender 115, 117, 401, 404
rights 187
social 62, 82, 334, 336–7
Rostker v. Goldberg 340
sanctions 446–8, 457, 463
Sanskritization 47
scepticism:
anti‐ 200
ethical 199–200
science 129–33, 135, 138, 224–5, 228, 231–2, 324–6
rights and belief fixation in 216–22
theory 200–2, 204, 207
segregation 283
self:
‐awareness 232
‐esteem 351
‐help 459
‐negation 438–43
‐realization 91
‐sufficiency 101, 140, 149, 151, 367–8, 376–9, 388, 390, 393–4, 398–9
‐worth 452
senses 81–3, 87, 96, 129, 175, 419
separateness 79, 80, 84, 110, 172, 175, 187, 418–20
set theory 201–2, 204–5
sexism 66, 106, 193, 194, 228, 253, 274, 290, 306, 310, 313, 445, 450–1, 452
sexuality 333, 358–9, 396, 414, 436
sharing 413
shelter 77, 83, 115, 171, 174, 196, 418–20
‘sitting on a man’ 446, 448–9
skill 160–1
sociability 94
social:
change 261, 333, 397
conditions 161–2
influence 265
social sciences 138, 229, 364
socialism 182, 300, 320, 384, 410, 423
socialization 226, 237, 283, 290, 293, 390–2, 402
(p.480) sociology 240, 250
solidarity 243–6, 253, 410, 450
speciesism 106
specification, plural and local 92–3, 98, 185, 187, 424
stability, concept of 367–8
status:
equality 305, 322
household 38–9, 429
person 106
social hierarchy 45
socio‐economic 52
wage labour and 3
women in developing countries 16–21
stereotyping 100, 339, 341, 353–4, 365, 396, 435, 452
strict scrutiny 339
subjection 428
subjectivism 105, 109, 128, 137, 141–2, 202, 213–14
subjectivity 134, 181, 220, 399
subjugation 433, 439, 455
subordination 117, 148, 282, 294, 341, 349, 355, 396, 408, 412, 415–16, 425, 430, 451
subservience 149
subsistence 42, 44, 47, 50, 52, 54, 86, 190, 237, 280, 285, 428
substitutionalism 274–7, 279, 291, 307–15, 317–19, 426, 431
superiority 136, 441–2
support 86, 96, 102
survival 1, 7, 116, 121, 259, 269, 291, 299, 312, 315, 321, 379
in India and Bangladesh 37–55
taboos 64, 90, 294
Taoism 409, 414–15
target, as metaphor 145–6
technological change 459–60
thirst 76–7, 92, 196, 372, 418
Thomism 145
threshold, capability 81–5, 107–8, 159–60, 170, 173–4, 180, 187–8, 193–6, 419–21
tolerance 266, 300, 306, 311, 327–8, 330, 438
totalitarianism 249
trade‐offs 111–12, 177, 201, 420–1
truth:
analytic 206
concept of 220
conceptual 205–6
as goal of inquiry 217–18
and relativism 228
theory 200
topic neutral 209
understanding 248–50, 441
unemployment in industrialized countries 29–31
UNICEF 41
utilitarianism 10, 107, 111–12, 125, 135–7, 141, 155, 163, 267, 361–4, 369, 379, 399, 411, 441
utility 5–6, 88, 90, 120, 123, 141, 156, 177–8, 192–3, 209–11, 262–3, 265, 267, 426
estimated 212–16
validity 254–5
value:
capabilities 124
cognitive 217–18
conflict 179
economic 126
free 184–5
functioning 108, 109, 111–12
human 409
inquiry 223
and inquiry 231
instrumental/terminal 207–8, 214
intrinsic 208
and justice 119
objective 129–34, 224
properties 202, 204–5
and psychology 137–8
scientific 222
of women 54, 415, 438, 447
variety, cultural 125–6
vectors, functioning 156, 158, 178
veiling 40
veterans and law 340
victimization 8
(p.481) violence 65, 147, 149, 223, 333, 345, 349, 357
wage:
discrimination 2, 33, 41–3, 452
equal 38, 42, 240, 291, 307, 318, 323, 429
war, Iraq/Kuwait 399
water schemes 458–61
wealth 38, 46, 50, 91, 195, 226, 264, 279, 321, 349, 377, 429
welfare 52, 156, 166, 190–1, 211, 255, 288, 343, 349, 351, 355
widowhood 13–15, 42, 48, 51, 55, 312, 321, 351, 429
wisdom 155, 177
womanhood 433–5, 439, 450, 453
Women's Governing Councils 446–7, 454–8, 461–4
Women's War 449–50, 453
World Bank 445, 460
World Food Programme (UN) 41
xenophobia 253