Three conditions are necessary for a performance of a work and together are sufficient: (1) the performance matches the work's content, more or less; (2) the performers intend to follow most of the instructions specifying the work, whoever wrote them; and (3) a robust causal chain runs from the performance to the work's creation. Live performances are individuated not solely in terms of the spatio‐temporal unity of the playing event, but also with respect to the performing group involved. Studio performances, by contrast, are identified with the simulated or virtual performances encoded on a master, or its clones.
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