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The International Dimensions of DemocratizationEurope and the Americas$
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Laurence Whitehead

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780199243754

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0199243751.001.0001

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The Imposition of Democracy: The Caribbean

The Imposition of Democracy: The Caribbean

(p.59) 3 The Imposition of Democracy: The Caribbean
The International Dimensions of Democratization

Laurence Whitehead (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

The history of the Caribbean provides a clear illustration of the ‘control’ method of imposed democratization and of the comparative effectiveness of three sub‐types of control—incorporation, invasion, and intimidation. It also raises challenging questions regarding the effectiveness of US democratization pressure on the region, with only Puerto Rico (incorporation) existing as a fully consolidated democracy. Other forms of democratic imposition have occurred in Panama (invasion) and Nicaragua (intimidation), using very different methods and producing very different results.

Keywords:   Caribbean, democratization, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico

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