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Green States and Social MovementsEnvironmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway$
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John S. Dryzek, David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg, and Hans-Kristian Hernes

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780199249022

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2003

DOI: 10.1093/0199249024.001.0001

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Co‐optive or Effective Inclusion? Movement Aims and State Imperatives

Co‐optive or Effective Inclusion? Movement Aims and State Imperatives

(p.56) 3 Co‐optive or Effective Inclusion? Movement Aims and State Imperatives
Green States and Social Movements

John S. Dryzek (Contributor Webpage)

David Downes

Christian Hunold (Contributor Webpage)

David Schlosberg (Contributor Webpage)

Hans‐Kristian Hernes (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

Sometimes the inclusion of the environmental movement in the state that has occurred has been genuine, and sometimes it has involved co‐option, i.e. access without real influence. We argue that inclusion can be genuine when the movement's defining interest can be attached to one of the core state imperatives; this explains why the US alone could prove such an environmental success story around 1970. Later in the 1970s, energy crisis meant that environmentalism was kept away from the state's core in all four countries, though there was substantial variation in how this was played out. More recent history reveals environmentalism generally kept away from the core, though there are exceptions (especially in Norway and, later, Germany).

Keywords:   co‐option, energy crisis, environmentalism, Germany, inclusion, Norway, state imperatives, USA

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