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Democracy and Public Management ReformBuilding the Republican State$
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Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780199261185

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2004

DOI: 10.1093/0199261180.001.0001

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Historical Forms of State

Historical Forms of State

(p.13) 1 Historical Forms of State
Democracy and Public Management Reform

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

Oxford University Press

A summary of the stages through which the modern state has passed historically. It began as authoritarian and patrimonial in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: it was the absolutist state. In the nineteenth century, it turned liberal and bureaucratic: the liberal state imposed the rule of law and assured civil rights. In the first part of the twentieth century, the transition to democracy was completed: it was the time of the liberal state, of elitist or liberal democracy, and, still, of bureaucratic administration. In the second part of that century, the state becomes social-democratic, and assumes a developmental character; democracy now is social or plural rather than just liberal. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the state is aiming to become social-liberal and republican; democracy is aiming to become participatory or republican; and administration is aiming to become managerial, or inspired by the principles of new public management.

Keywords:   absolutist state, bureaucratic administration, democratic-liberal state, liberal state, new public management, patrimonial administration, plural democracy, republican democracy, republican state, social-democratic state

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