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The United States and Western Europe Since 1945From "Empire" by Invitation to Transatlantic Drift$
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Geir Lundestad

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780199266685

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2004

DOI: 10.1093/0199266689.001.0001

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The End of the Cold War and Cooperation in the End, 1984–1993

The End of the Cold War and Cooperation in the End, 1984–1993

(p.226) 8 The End of the Cold War and Cooperation in the End, 1984–1993
The United States and Western Europe Since 1945

Geir Lundestad

Oxford University Press

Charts the changes that occurred in American–Western European relations during the years of the Reagan and Bush administrations of 1984–1993, which marked a change in the Cold War (largely as a result of Gorbachev's policy changes in the Soviet Union), and its eventual end, which could be marked as the year 1989 (the year of the American–Soviet summit in Malta and of the collapse of Eastern European communist regimes). The first section of the chapter examines the Reagan and Gorbachev ‘Lovefest’: the change of Ronald Reagan's hardline anti‐Soviet policies to a policy of American–Soviet cooperation under the rule of Mikhail Gorbachev, and discusses Reagan's other foreign policies and Western European attitudes toward these. The second section, ‘The Liberation of Eastern Europe, the Unification of Germany, and the New World Order’, looks at the foreign policies of George Bush (who became President in January 1989) during this time of immense change in Europe, and at the increasing East–West cooperation that he presided over; the Gulf War strengthened American–European relations considerably during this period. The third section of the chapter shows that American–EU relations improved markedly under Bush, although the attitudes of the various European countries to a role for America in Europe varied, with the French being notably anti‐American. The last section of the chapter briefly considers the survival of the American–European relationship through this period and the changes that occurred in it.

Keywords:   American foreign policy, American–EU relations, American–Soviet cooperation, American–Western European relations, Bush administration, change, Cold War, collapse of communism, Eastern Europe, East–West cooperation, Gorbachev, Gulf War, Liberation of Eastern Europe, Reagan administration, Soviet Union, Unification of Germany, US, Western Europe

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