This chapter covers the sensitive history of nuclear cooperation between China and Pakistan, including the role of A.Q. Khan. Sino–Pakistani nuclear cooperation, which developed out of their security relationship, was cemented by an agreement between Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Mao Zedong. As cooperation accelerated in the early 1980s the United States declined to stymie nuclear cooperation between Pakistan and China because both were ostensibly allies against the Soviet Union. While Pakistan has benefited the most from the relationship, namely the security guaranteed nuclear weapons, China continues to benefit opportunistically from Pakistan’s transfer of sensitive Western technology. In addition to nuclear weapons, the chapter also covers the history of China’s significant assistance to Pakistan’s missile program as well as Sino–Saudi missile cooperation, which has been facilitated by Pakistan.
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