The evolution of Chinese strategic thinking about the role of Pakistan is mapped in this chapter, which begins with recalling the 1996 Pakistan visit of Chinese president Jiang Zemin and 2008 wrangling over the admittance of India in to the Nuclear Suppliers Group. It argues that, if the US approach to India over the last decade has been one of de-hyphenation from Pakistan, China’s has been one of re-hyphenation. Since the nuclearization of South Asia in the late 1990s, Washington and Beijing have been unified in their efforts to prevent all-out war on the subcontinent. The Kargil War in 1999, writes Small, is evidence of this dynamic. During that conflict China declined to support Pakistan and Beijing coordinated with Washington to ensure the de-escalation of the crisis. Despite coordination with the US during times of crisis, China has continued nuclear cooperation with Pakistan over US and international opposition as a manifestation of China’s strategy of using Pakistan to balance against India.
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