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The Papacy and the OrthodoxSources and History of a Debate$
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A. Edward Siecienski

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190245252

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190245252.001.0001

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The Age of the Great Schism and the Gregorian Reform

The Age of the Great Schism and the Gregorian Reform

(p.240) 6 The Age of the Great Schism and the Gregorian Reform
The Papacy and the Orthodox

A. Edward Siecienski

Oxford University Press

This chapter details changes engendered in the eleventh century by the pontificates of Popes Leo IX (1048–54) and Gregory VII (1073–85), when papal reformers argued that the papacy’s divine mandate required recognition of the pope’s complete authority over all ecclesial and secular powers. Yet even after the excommunications of 1054 the debate was not about the primacy itself, except to ask how the pope could maintain that position while embracing “heretical” teachings (e.g., the filioque and use of azymes). It was not until the crusades that this changed and a series of Byzantine authors brought forward the arguments against the primacy that would characterize Orthodox polemics for the next several centuries. For this reason this period marks, perhaps better than the definitions of 1870, the real “point of no return” vis-à-vis the East’s attitude toward the papacy, when diverse understandings of the Roman primacy truly became ecclesiologically incompatible.

Keywords:   Gregorian Reform, Great Schism, Niketas Seides, Anselm of Havelburg, Niketas of Nicomedia, Crusades, Pope Innocent III

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