Islam, Statehood and Democracy
This chapter examines the relation between Islam, state and democracy, beginning with the analyses of two political scientists Using substantivist Islamic political theory, Bahtiar Effendy identifies a three-point agenda of theological renewal, political-bureaucratic reform and social transformation. Inspired by Karl Mannheim, Luthfi Assyaukanie compares the merits of the Islamic Democratic State, Religious Democratic State and Liberal Islamic State to make a case for the acceptance of secularism. This political theorizing forms part of a wider set of pertinent questions regarding the ambiguities and obscurities surrounding secularism, secularization and liberalism. The chapter traces how progressive Muslim intellectuals of both modernist and traditionalist backgrounds engage with José Casanova’s refining of the secularization thesis and Alfred’ Stepan’s thesis of “Twin Tolerations”. They present liberal Islam as a social ethic and a democratic force, and advocate the continuing relevance of Indonesia’s pseudo-state doctrine of Pancasila. The chapter closes with the challenge of these ideas by reactionary Muslims as instances of ghazwul fikri or the ‘intellectual invasion’ of foreign–un-Islamic–ideas.
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