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When Norms CollideLocal Responses to Activism against Female Genital Mutilation and Early Marriage$
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Karisa Cloward

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190274917

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274917.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 26 October 2020

A Theory of Local-Level Responses to International Norm Promotion

A Theory of Local-Level Responses to International Norm Promotion

Chapter:
(p.53) Chapter 2 A Theory of Local-Level Responses to International Norm Promotion
Source:
When Norms Collide
Author(s):

Karisa Cloward

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274917.003.0002

This chapter presents the central theoretical framework for understanding local-level norm change in response to a conflict between international and local norms. It disaggregates individual norm change into three discrete activities—attitude change, primary behavioral change, and secondary behavioral and rhetorical change—and establishes the conditions under which each of these changes is most likely to occur. It also identifies factors that influence the extent of exposure to the international normative message. The theory highlights systemic, local, and individual-level sources of variation in both exposure and norm change. It then considers the processes by which international norms diffuse across individuals and through communities, emphasizing both social and temporal dimensions of change.

Keywords:   international norm, local norm, female genital mutilation, FGM, early marriage, diffusion, salience, nongovernmental organization, NGO

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