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When Norms CollideLocal Responses to Activism against Female Genital Mutilation and Early Marriage$
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Karisa Cloward

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190274917

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190274917.001.0001

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Fostering Local Attitude Change

Fostering Local Attitude Change

(p.155) Chapter 5 Fostering Local Attitude Change
When Norms Collide

Karisa Cloward

Oxford University Press

This chapter addresses attitude change in response to transnational activism against FGM and early marriage. It finds that individual attitude change is most likely to occur when the international normative message people receive is not only frequent but also of high quality, and that aid-dependent NGOs are less likely to provide such a high-quality message. While message quality is difficult to operationalize, the chapter is able to show that individuals with a strong grasp of the content of the international norms—that is, knowledge of the health and human rights consequences of FGM and early marriage—are more likely to express opposition to the two practices. It also shows that, for any given level of activism, individuals are less likely to change their attitudes about FGM than about early marriage, because of FGM’s higher local salience.

Keywords:   international norm, local norm, attitude change, female genital mutilation, FGM, early marriage, salience, nongovernmental organization, NGO, international aid

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