This chapter completes the explanation of creative insecurity theory and presents cross-national statistical data to support it. It describes how military and economic threats from foreign rivals can counteract domestic political resistance to innovation. External threats raise the benefits of S&T progress and the costs of technological stagnation. Therefore, higher levels of external threats cause a society to alter its calculus regarding the relative costs and risks of technological change. Indeed, as the threat balance shifts more and more toward the external, even many technological losers may recognize that their interests are better served by accepting the costs of S&T progress and government actions that support it.
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