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Cosmopolitanism and EmpireUniversal Rulers, Local Elites, and Cultural Integration in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean$
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Myles Lavan, Richard E. Payne, and John Weisweiler

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190465667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190465667.001.0001

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Making Romans

Making Romans

Citizens, Subjects, and Subjectivity in Republican Empire

(p.169) 8 Making Romans
Cosmopolitanism and Empire

Clifford Ando

Oxford University Press

This chapter offers a long-term perspective on the history of citizenship which illustrates several massive discontinuities. It shows that the enfranchisement of aliens originally served not as reward but as punishment for defeated communities. The second century BCE saw a key departure with the innovation of conferring citizenship on office-holders in some subordinate communities. The chapter highlights the paradox that this devolved the right to create citiens to alien populations, while underlining its effect in integrating local elites into a wider community that was distinctly imperial in form. On this reading, the universalization of citizenship by the emperor Caracalla can not simply be seen as logical continuation of earlier practices. Rather, citizenship fulfilled radically different functions in different periods.

Keywords:   universalization of citizenship, Caracalla, enfranchisement, citizenship, local elites

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