Citizens, Subjects, and Subjectivity in Republican Empire
This chapter offers a long-term perspective on the history of citizenship which illustrates several massive discontinuities. It shows that the enfranchisement of aliens originally served not as reward but as punishment for defeated communities. The second century BCE saw a key departure with the innovation of conferring citizenship on office-holders in some subordinate communities. The chapter highlights the paradox that this devolved the right to create citiens to alien populations, while underlining its effect in integrating local elites into a wider community that was distinctly imperial in form. On this reading, the universalization of citizenship by the emperor Caracalla can not simply be seen as logical continuation of earlier practices. Rather, citizenship fulfilled radically different functions in different periods.
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