Contemporary Catholicism has been defined by papal resistance to modernity, defined as Ultramontanism. But Western Protestant Christianity in recent centuries has been marked by ‘disenchantment’ and increasing internal secularization, and in the last few decades Catholicism has been affected by these social processes too. Catholicism has created additional problems for itself with resurgent Ultramontanism in the form of the ban on contraception in the encyclical Humanae Vitae. At the same time, Catholicism has become increasingly involved with issues of human rights and social justice, increasing its internal secularization. Also, as Catholics have become increasingly integrated into modern Western countries, Catholicism in the developed world has become decreasingly dependent on cultural reinforcement.
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