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Developing Cross-Cultural Measurement in Social Work Research and Evaluation$
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Thanh Tran, Tam Nguyen, and Keith Chan

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190496470

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2018

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190496470.001.0001

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Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments

Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments

(p.26) 3 Adopting or Adapting Existing Instruments
Developing Cross-Cultural Measurement in Social Work Research and Evaluation

Thanh V. Tran

Tam Nguyen

Keith Chan

Oxford University Press

Cross-cultural translation is one of the major tasks in cross-cultural research. The task of translation becomes more challenging when an instrument is translated into two or more target languages simultaneously, especially with the translation of special constructs. This chapter (1) reviews existing cross-cultural translation approaches and offers the reader with practical guidelines; (2) presents a multilevel translation process encompassing back translation, expert evaluation, cognitive interviews, focus group evaluation, and field evaluation; and (3) offers a guide for best practices in selecting translators to perform cross-cultural translation.

Keywords:   forward translation, back translation, forward and backward translation, multilevel translation, cognitive interviews

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