The term culture should be understood from microlevels and macrolevels. Microlevel is the study of different subgroups within a society or a community such as race, ethnicity, religion, gender, language, and even political orientation. At the macrolevel, cross-cultural analyses can be viewed as the comparison of different nations and continents. Incorrect screening instruments or bias diagnostic procedures lead to false implementation of treatments, and false treatments can harm clients socially, psychologically, and financially. Cross-cultural measurement development requires the researchers to be aware of cultural nuances of the target culture. Researchers should consider gender differences within the target culture at every step of the instrument development. When an instrument is developed for two or more cultural groups, representatives of these groups must be invited to participate in the research process from the formulation of the research questions, conceptualization, and operationalization of research variables to questionnaire construction and interpretation of the results.
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