Risk control has been the government’s primary mandate to bank management. Banks emphasize risk management and internal controls. NPLs, existing and potential, are covered by high reserve levels and effective work-out capabilities. The largest risk and potential source of NPLs lies in increasing exposure to private sector borrowers, particularly SMEs. Risk-based pricing of loans remains weak. Operational risk has been much reduced. External audits are by international audit firms. Internal audit capabilities of banks are now good. Banks excel in IT, leading Western banks in many areas of banking technology. Strategy remains undifferentiated between banks, partly due to lack of proprietorial knowledge and sharing of information between banks. Banks have low awareness of need for branding.
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