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Who Belongs?Race, Resources, and Tribal Citizenship in the Native South$
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Mikaëla M. Adams

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190619466

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190619466.001.0001

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Citizenship and Sovereignty

(p.1) Introduction
Who Belongs?

Mikaëla M. Adams

Oxford University Press

This book explores the history of tribal citizenship in six southeastern tribes. It argues that tribal citizenship is intimately connected to tribal sovereignty. When tribes decided who belonged to their communities, they engaged in a political act of self-determination. Criteria for inclusion changed in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries as developments in federal policy gave new economic value to tribal citizenship, Jim Crow segregation put pressure on tribes to distinguish themselves racially, and the bureaucratization of the Office of Indian Affairs led to systemized documentation of tribal citizens. Finally, tribes made strategic choices when they decided who belonged. Not simply passive victims, tribes worked within the constraints they faced to create citizenship criteria that reflected their values while protecting their resources and status. By exploring the stories of six tribes in depth, this book lends an ethnohistorical perspective to the study of tribal citizenship.

Keywords:   Citizenship, sovereignty, belonging, race, Pamunkey, Catawba, Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, Miccosukee

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