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American RoutesRacial Palimpsests and the Transformation of Race$
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Angel Adams Parham

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190624750

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190624750.001.0001

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St. Domingue Refugees and Creoles of Color

St. Domingue Refugees and Creoles of Color

(p.94) Chapter 4 St. Domingue Refugees and Creoles of Color
American Routes

Angel Adams Parham

Oxford University Press

Chapter 4 examines the experience of St. Domingue refugees of color across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The focus is on refugees and their descendants who were free people of color. As was the case with white Creoles, Creoles of color faced intense pressure with the rise of Jim Crow to take a stand on one side or the other of the starkly drawn black/white border. Although they were officially categorized with black Anglo-Americans, Creoles of color in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries continued in many ways to operate according to a Latinized racial system that allowed them to differentiate themselves socially from Anglo-blacks. In contrast to the white Creoles who blended into white Anglo-American society, many Creoles of color saw a benefit in preserving their Creole identity because it provided a way of resisting the degrading racial effects of the Anglo-American racial system.

Keywords:   Creoles of color, refugees, race, St. Domingue, Louisiana, Haiti, racial system

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