This chapter examines the multiple pathways—economic, social, civic, political—that Indian immigrants travel to “become American.” The journey is seen from multiple angles: naturalization, civic engagement, political participation, and discrimination that shaped the forms and degree of assimilation for earlier cohorts. High levels of education have facilitated economic assimilation, while distinct religious identities have impeded cultural and social assimilation and shaped political choices. The chapter analyzes the assimilation of the second generation as manifest in exogamy, fertility decisions, occupation choices, and different forms of civic and political engagement. The chapter also examines how India’s diversity has led to contestations about identity within the community. The diversity of this population is further illustrated by examining the roughly 10 percent of this population who were neither born in India nor the United States.
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