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BioelectromagnetismPrinciples and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields$
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Jaakko Malmivuo and Robert Plonsey

Print publication date: 1995

Print ISBN-13: 9780195058239

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195058239.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 21 October 2021

Vectorcardiographic Lead Systems

Vectorcardiographic Lead Systems

(p.290) Chapter 16 Vectorcardiographic Lead Systems

Jaakko Malmivuo

Oxford University Press

This chapter introduces representative examples of the large number of uncorrected and corrected vectorcardiographic lead systems. Most of the uncorrected and corrected vectorcardiographic lead systems are based on the rectangular body axes. After inventing the central terminal in 1932, Frank Norman Wilson logically progressed to the development of a lead system for vectorcardiography. Wilson and his co-workers published a lead system that added to the Einthoven limb leads an electrode located on the back (about 2.5 cm to the left from the seventh dorsal vertebra). The four electrodes formed the corners of a tetrahedron and consequently permitted the back-to-front component of the heart vector to be recognized.

Keywords:   vectorcardiographic lead systems, electrode, tetrahedron, heart vector, back-to-front component, homogeneities

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