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Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts$
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Charles Issawi

Print publication date: 1998

Print ISBN-13: 9780195118131

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118131.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 16 January 2022

The Clash of Cultures in the Near East

The Clash of Cultures in the Near East

(p.7) One The Clash of Cultures in the Near East
Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts

Charles Issawi

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines the conflicts between the Greek and Semitic cultures 2,000 years ago and the Western and Muslim cultures of the last 200 years. Both of these cases show how a foreign, more advanced society dominated a less advanced society evoking two kinds of responses, characterized by Arnold Toynbee as the Herodian and the Zealot. The Herodian is a form of cosmopolitanism evoked by foreign pressure while the Zealot is a form of archaism. The first response is characterized by an influential group which is fascinated and adopts the foreign culture for survival. The latter represents the mass of the society that dislikes the foreign culture wherein a small group from within activates and combats the foreign influences. The synthesis of how this was achieved in the past and speculations of whether something similar will ensue today is given.

Keywords:   Herodian, Zealot, cosmopolitanism, archaism, conflicts, foreign pressure

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