This chapter discusses compilations of external dose coefficients, which give external dose rates per unit concentration of radionuclides in specified source regions (air, water, ground surface, or surface soil), that can be used in assessments of dose to the public from radionuclides in the environment. Assumptions used in calculating external dose coefficients are described, and the applicability of calculated dose coefficients is discussed. External dose coefficients in the form of effective doses per unit concentration of selected radionuclides in air, in water, or on the ground surface are tabulated. The chapter also discusses the point-kernel method, which can be used to estimate external dose from arbitrary distributions of radionuclides and corrections to external dose coefficients for photons that take into account effects of building shielding during indoor residence, ground roughness, exposure during boating activities, and exposure to contaminated shorelines.
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