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NeuroepidemiologyFrom principles to practice$
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Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen Van Den Eeden, and Valarie M. McGuire

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195133790

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 January 2021

Study Design, Measures of Effect, and Sources of Bias

Study Design, Measures of Effect, and Sources of Bias

(p.23) 2 Study Design, Measures of Effect, and Sources of Bias

Lorene M. Nelson

Caroline M. Tanner

Stephen K. Van Den Eeden

Valerie M. McGuire

Oxford University Press

This chapter addresses the principles of research study design. It provides an in-depth description of commonly used study designs to address research objectives. It presents information about study designs for descriptive epidemiology (i.e., studies of disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates) and analytic epidemiology (i.e., randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, retrospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies). It describes the measures of effect that reflect the associations between health predictors and neurologic outcomes (odds ratios, relative risks). The second part of the chapter describes common study biases that can adversely affect study validity (sampling error, selection bias, confounding) and how to avoid these biases in the design and conduct of clinical and epidemiological studies.

Keywords:   incidence rates, prevalence, mortality rates, descriptive epidemiology, analytic epidemiology, randomized trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, study biases

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