From Democratization to the Restoration of Authoritarianism
This chapter examines Egypt’s continued struggle for democracy. It discusses the regime of Hosni Mubarak (1981–2011), which was overthrown in the Arab Spring uprising. It describes how Egypt’s fragile democratic transition was shattered when many original Tahrir Square protestors and so-called liberals abandoned democracy and embraced a military-led coup to depose Egypt’s first democratically elected president. Those who championed the ouster now faced the reality that by toppling the Morsi government, they did not usher in a more democratic system but rather a restoration of a military-guided authoritarian government whose repression, violence, and brutality exceeded that of any government in modern Egyptian history.
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