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After ProgressAmerican Social Reform and European Socialism in the Twentieth Century$
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Norman Birnbaum

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780195158595

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195158595.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 November 2021

Is Mediterranean Socialism Different?

Is Mediterranean Socialism Different?

(p.260) 8 Is Mediterranean Socialism Different?
After Progress

Norman Birnbaum

Oxford University Press

The concept of modernization is tautological: modernity is a phenomenon of the very recent past, interpreted as a positive culmination of historical development. Many advocates of the modernization thesis suppose that a limited state, a market with consumer sovereignty, and a society marked by the absence of total social prescription in the realms of belief, culture, and morality define modernity. The idea of modernization is to secularize the idea of progress, as its protagonists anxiously examine very different contemporary societies for evidence of modernization itself. For Spain, it is far more accurate to refer to Europeanization. Their cosmopolitanism was the result of a European influence that could not be stopped at the Pyrenees, of education and travel in the rest of the world, of the increasing integration of Spain into the world economy.

Keywords:   modernization, sovereignty, societies, Spain, Europeanization, cosmopolitanism

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