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Between Two EmpiresRace, History, and Transnationalism in Japanese America$
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Eiichiro Azuma

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195159400

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195159400.001.0001

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Wartime Racisms, State Nationalisms, and the Collapse of Immigrant Transnationalism

(p.208) Epilogue
Between Two Empires

Eiichiro Azuma (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

This chapter explores the wartime and post-war phases of Japanese American history. The Pacific War led to the demise of transnational immigrant history. The collective world view that inspired Issei to search for a pioneer past and strive for a better future vanished with the collapse of the Japanese settlement communities and industries in the American West — tangible markers of racial development. The post-war phase of Japanese American history diverged from the Issei's original designs. Under the War Relocation Authority (WRA) policy, the leadership of the community fell into the hands of the second generation, notably senior members of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL). Along the line of the WRA-JACL collaboration, integration into mainstream society, rather than racial development, became the central concern of the ethnic community in the wake of internment.

Keywords:   Japanese Americans, immigrants, history, transnationalism, racism, World War II, Issei, integration

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