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Black and White ManhattanThe History of Racial Formation in Colonial New York City$
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Thelma Wills Foote

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195165371

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165371.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 25 January 2022

“The Happiness of Liberty of Which I Knew Nothing Before”

“The Happiness of Liberty of Which I Knew Nothing Before”

Passports to Freedom and the Black Exodus from Post-Revolutionary New York City

(p.210) 7 “The Happiness of Liberty of Which I Knew Nothing Before”
Black and White Manhattan


Oxford University Press

This chapter shows that the final split between the English colonial rulers and settlers in British North America provided passports to freedom for runaway slaves, who during the white American War for independence deserted their passport masters. It provides a historical analysis of the formation of the binary racial division that arose out of the project of colony building on Manhattan Island during the early modern era and took shape in articulation with divisions of class, religion, birthplace, gender, sexuality, and language.

Keywords:   colonial rulers, settlers, New York City, American War, racial division

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