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Black and White ManhattanThe History of Racial Formation in Colonial New York City$
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Thelma Wills Foote

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195165371

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165371.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 January 2022

Epilogue: “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”

Epilogue: “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”

The Aporia of American Democracy and the Permanence of Racism

(p.227) Epilogue: “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”
Black and White Manhattan


Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses the abolition of slavery in the United States. It notes that the civil rights amendments were promulgated to protect the liberty of recently emancipated black citizens and their descendants. It explains that race no longer means something biological, but something political that race thinking continues to operate as a seemingly indispensable way of knowing the world.

Keywords:   slavery, democracy, United States, New York City, civil rights, racism, black population

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