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Active Bodies – A History of Women’s Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Active Bodies: A History of Women’s Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America

Martha H. Verbrugge


This book examines the philosophies, experiences, and instructional programs of white and black female physical educators who taught in public schools and diverse colleges and universities, including coed and single-sex, public and private, and predominantly white or black institutions. Working primarily with female students, women physical educators had to consider what an active female could and should do compared to an active male. Applying concepts of sex differences, they debated the implications of female anatomy, physiology, reproductive functions, and psychosocial traits for achieving ... More

Keywords: physical education, gym class, physical educators, gym teachers, sex differences, nature/nurture debate, women’s sports, gender equity

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780195168792
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168792.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Martha H. Verbrugge, author
Bucknell University