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Distinctiveness and Memory$
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R. Reed Hunt and James B. Worthen

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195169669

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169669.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 17 May 2022

The Distinctiveness Effect in Explicit and Implicit Memory

The Distinctiveness Effect in Explicit and Implicit Memory

(p.210) (p.211) 10 The Distinctiveness Effect in Explicit and Implicit Memory
Distinctiveness and Memory

Lisa Geraci

Suparna Rajaram

Oxford University Press

Much research supports the intuitive belief that people have very good memory for unusual or distinct information. This phenomenon is known as the distinctiveness effect. The majority of this research comes from studies using explicit memory tests on which people make a deliberate effort to remember past events. However, there is very little research examining the distinctiveness effect using different probes of memory, known as implicit tests. On implicit memory tests, people do not intend to remember, but nonetheless memory shows its effects behaviorally. This chapter examines the role of awareness in mediating superior memory for unusual information. It reviews a select group of studies in which distinctiveness effects have been examined using explicit and implicit memory measures. It begins by describing the distinction between explicit and implicit memory tests. It then describes studies that demonstrate the effects of distinctiveness in explicit memory, as well as studies that show that distinctiveness is closely related to the vivid and recollective component of explicit memory.

Keywords:   distinctiveness effects, explicit memory, implicit memory, memory tests, awareness, past events

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