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Civilized Life in the UniverseScientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials$

George Basalla

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195171815

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171815.001.0001

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CHAPTER 6

CHAPTER 6

Source:
Civilized Life in the Universe
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Lowell's Legacy

David Strauss, Percival Lowell (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001)

;

Ferris Greenslet, The Lowells and Their Seven Worlds (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1946)

;

William (p.216) Graves Hoyt, Lowell and Mars (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976)

;

Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986)

;

Karl S. Guthke, The Last Frontier, trans. Helen Atkins (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990)

;

Steven J. Dick, The Biological Universe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996)

;

Keay Davidson, Carl Sagan: A Life (New York: Wiley, 1999)

;

H. G. Wells, The War of the Worlds, ed. David Y. Hughes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995)

;

Kurd Lasswitz, Two Planets, Auf Zwei Planeten, trans. Hans H. Rudnick (Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press, 1971)

;

Mark R. Hillegas, “Martians and Mythmakers: 1877–1938,” in Challenges in American Culture, ed. Ray B. Browne, et al. (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1970)

;

Franz Rottensteiner, “Kurd Lasswitz: A German Pioneer of Science Fiction,” in Thomas D. Clareson, ed., SF: The Other Side of Realism (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1971)

;

Richard D. Mullen, “The Undisciplined Imagination: Edgar Rice Burroughs and Lowellian Mars,” in Thomas D. Clareson ed., SF: The Other Side of Realism (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1971)

;

Wiley Ley, Rockets, Missiles, and Space Travel (New York: Viking Press, 1951)

;

David W. Swift, SETI Pioneers (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1990)

;

Henry S. F. Cooper, Jr., The Search for Life on Mars (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980)

;

Hubertus Strughold, The Green and Red Planet (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1953)

;

Ray Bradbury, Mars and the Mind of Man (New York: Harper & Row, 1973)

;

David E. Fisher and Marshall Jon Fisher, Strangers in the Night: A Brief History of Life on Other Worlds (Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1998)

;

Howard E. McCurdy, Space and the American Imagination (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997)

;

Edward C. Ezell and Linda N. Ezell, On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet, 1958–1978 (Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1984)

;

William Sheehan, The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996)

;

Carl Sagan, “Mars—A New World to Explore,” National Geographic 132 (Dec. 1967): 821–841.

Hopes Dashed

Carl Sagan amd Paul Fox, “The Canals of Mars: Assessment after Mariner 9,” Icarus 25 (Aug. 1975):602–612

;

Norman H. Horowitz, To Utopia and Back: The Search for Life in the Solar System (New York: W. H. Freeman, 1989)

;

Bruce Murray, Journey into Space: The First Three Decades of Space Exploration (New York: Norton, 1989)

;

Monica Grady, Ian Wright, and Colin Pillinger, “Opening a Martian Can of Worms?” Nature 382 (Aug. 15, 1996): 575–576

;

Richard A. Kerr, “Ancient Life on Mars?” Science 273 (Aug. 16, 1996): 864–866

;

Donald Goldsmith, The Hunt for Life on Mars (New York: Dutton, 1997)

;

J. William Schopf, Cradle of Life: The Discovery of the Earth's Earliest Fossils (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999)

;

John Noble Wilford, “Spacecraft Sends Its First Images of Mars,” New York Times (Mar. 2, 2002): A, 12

;

Richard A. Kerr, “A Tale of Two Landings, One Orbiting,” Science 303 (Jan. 9, 2004): 150–151

;

Andrew Lawler, “Scientists Add Up Gains and Losses in Bush's New Vision for NASA,” Science 303 (Jan. 23, 2004): 444–445

;

Linda Rowan, “Opportunity Runneth Over,” Science 306 (Dec. 3, 2004): 1697

;

Kenneth Chang, (p.217) “Methane in Martian Air Suggests Life Beneath the Surface,” New York Times (Nov. 23, 2004): Science Times, 2.

Lowell's Successor: Carl Sagan

David Strauss, Peraval Lowell (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2001)

;

Henry S. F. Cooper, Jr., The Search for Life on Mars (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980)

;

Carl Sagan, “The Planet Venus,” Science 133 (Jan. 23, 1961): 849–858

;

Yerzant Terizan and Elizabeth M. Bilson, eds., Carl Sagan's Universe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)

;

I. S. Shklovskii and Carl Sagan, Intelligent Life in the Universe, trans. Paula Fern (New York: Dell, 1966)

;

Keay Davidson, Carl Sagan: A Life (New York: Wiley, 1999)

;

Carl Sagan, Jonathan Norton Leonard, and the editors of Time-Life Books, Planets (New York: Time-Life Books, 1969)

;

Howard E. McCurdy, Space and the American Imagination (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian University Press, 1997)

;

Steven J. Dick, The Biological Universe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996)

;

Edward Clinton Ezell and Linda Neuman Ezell, On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet, 1958–1978 (Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1984)

;

Carl Sagan, The Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective (New York: Doubleday, 1973)

, and

Other Worlds (New York: Bantam, 1975)

;

William Sheehan, The Planet Mars: A History of Observation and Discovery (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996)

;

Walter A. McDougall, The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age (New York: Basic Books, 1985)

;

William Graves Hoyt, Lowell and Mars (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1976)

;

Hughes H.Kieffer, Bruce M.Jakosky, Conway Snyder, and Mildred S. Matthews, eds., Mars (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1992)

;

Peter John Cattermole, Mars: The Story of the Red Planet (London: Chapman and Hall, 1992)

;

Edgar Rice Burroughs, A Fighting Man of Mars (New York: Metropolitan Books, 1931).

The Rational Speculator

Carl Sagn, The Demon-Haunted World (New York: Random House, 1996)

;

Joel Achenbach, Captured by Aliens (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999)

;

Philip Morrison, “The Taste for Speculation,” Science 153 (Sept. 30, 1966): 1628–1629

;

Christiaan Huygens, Kosmotheoros (The Hague 1698), appeared in English translation as The Celestial Worlds discover'd (London: Cass, 1968)

;

Percival Lowell, Mars (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1895)

;

Donald Goldsmith, The Hunt for Life on Mars (New York: Dutton, 1997).