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Civilized Life in the UniverseScientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials$
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George Basalla

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195171815

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171815.001.0001

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Mars Unveiled

Mars Unveiled

(p.89) CHAPTER SIX Mars Unveiled
Civilized Life in the Universe

George Basalla

Oxford University Press

NASA spacecraft orbiting Mars in the 1960s and 1970s returned images of a cratered Mars with no signs of Lowell’s canals or life of any kind. However, Martian life as well as Martian civilization found a new champion in Carl Sagan, a planetary astronomer and popularizer of science. Sagan and Iosif Shkovskii’s book, Intelligent Life in the Universe (1966), argued for the existence of a long-dead Martian civilization and proposed a rationale and program for the search for intelligent, civilized life in the universe. Sagan scoffed at Lowell’s Martian canals, yet Sagan’s claims that civilized life was abundant in the universe initially gained few supporters at NASA or in the scientific community. Like Lowell, Sagan sought a popular following by arguing repeatedly and eloquently that the discovery of intelligent extraterrestrial life was in our grasp.

Keywords:   Martian canals, Martian civilization, NASA, Carl Sagan, Iosif Shkovskii, Intelligent Life in the Universe

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