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Black, White, and IndianRace and the Unmaking of an American Family$
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Claudio Saunt

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195176315

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176315.001.0001

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The Graysons in a Black and White World

The Graysons in a Black and White World

(p.194) 10 The Graysons in a Black and White World
Black, White, and Indian

Claudio Saunt (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

In the Jim Crow era, some Indians publicly identified with their Confederate heritage as a way to emphasize their affiliation with whites in Oklahoma. For purposes of segregation, the state constitution defined blacks as those with any amount of African ancestry. All others, including Indians, were considered white. That definition put into the law the racial divide that had begun emerging in the Grayson family a century earlier.

Keywords:   Oklahoma, Jim Crow, Confederate heritage, segregation, Indians, racial divide

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