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Brain Gender$
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Melissa Hines

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195188363

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188363.001.1

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Gonadal Hormones and Human Sexuality

Gonadal Hormones and Human Sexuality

(p.83) 5 Gonadal Hormones and Human Sexuality
Brain Gender

Melissa Hines

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses the relationship of core gender identity, sexual orientation, and libido to gonadal hormones. Data suggest that core gender identity and sexual orientation relate to the early hormone environment (organizational influences of hormones), whereas libido, or the strength of sexual interest, relates more strongly to the hormone environment in adulthood (activational influences of hormones). This is consistent with evidence that sexual orientation and core gender identity relate to perinatal hormone abnormalities, but are not influenced by changing hormone levels in adulthood. In contrast, libido is activated by hormones that are present postpubertally, particularly androgens, with no evidence that high levels of androgens prenatally enhance libido.

Keywords:   core gender identity, sexual orientation, libido, sexual interest, gonadal hormones, activational influences

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