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Media Ownership and Concentration in America$
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Eli Noam

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195188523

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188523.001.0001

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Electronic Mass Media: Retail Distribution

Electronic Mass Media: Retail Distribution

(p.55) 4 Electronic Mass Media: Retail Distribution
Media Ownership and Concentration in America

Eli M. Noam

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines the electronic mass media of retail distribution—radio, television, cable, and direct broadcast satellites. These media consist of two major segments; there are local retail media and national wholesale networks. Retail media distribute content directly to audiences. Examples are local radio and television stations and cable distribution systems. In contrast, wholesale networks bundle programs created by content producers and distribute them to retailers. Examples are radio and television networks, cable channels, and program syndicators. Radio has become the poster boy for media concentration. Most public discussions of media trends refer to the developments in radio and its lessons for public policy. No media industry in the United States has changed more in ownership than local radio stations. The level of local television station concentration is the lowest among all of the eight local mass media analyzed.

Keywords:   United States, electronic mass media, retail distribution, radio stations, television networks, cable television, direct broadcast satellites, media concentration

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