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Are We Free?Psychology and Free Will$
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John Baer, James C. Kaufman, and Roy F. Baumeister

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195189636

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189636.001.0001

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Reconstrual of “Free Will” From the Agentic Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory

Reconstrual of “Free Will” From the Agentic Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory

(p.86) 6 Reconstrual of “Free Will” From the Agentic Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory
Are We Free?

Albert Bandura

Oxford University Press

This chapter reconstrues “free will” in terms of the exercise of personal control through cognitive and self-regulative processes. In this conception, psychosocial functioning is the product of a dynamic triadic interplay of intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental determinants. Within this triadic determination, deliberative thought not only alters the relation between environmental influences and behavioral outcomes, but fosters courses of action that change the physical and social environments. Because personal influence is part of the determining conditions, individuals have a hand in shaping the course of events. Individuals are neither aware of nor directly control neuronal mechanisms. Rather, they exercise second-order control. By intentionally engaging in activities over which they exercise direct control, they indirectly shape the functional structure and enlist the subserving neuronal events in the service of diverse purposes.

Keywords:   cognitive control, determining conditions, intentionality, neuronal mechanisms, personal control, second-order control, self-regulation, triadic determination

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