This book is about nonconsequentialist ethical theory and some alternatives to it, either substantive or methodological. It explores nonconsequentialism and the Trolley Problem as well as particular aspects of nonconsequentialist theory pertaining to harming persons. It includes a discussion on prerogatives, constraints, inviolability, and the significance of status, along with a nonconsequentialist theory of aggregation and the distribution of scarce goods. It contrasts two subcategories of a method known as pairwise comparison—confrontation and substitution—by which conflicts might be resolved in a nonconsequentialist theory, and argues that substitution is permissible. The book also examines Peter Unger's views on the permissibility of harming innocent bystanders and the duty to harm ourselves in order to aid others, responsibility and collaboration, and new ways in which physical distance might bear on our duty to aid. Moreover, there is a section devoted to the views of others within the consequentialist and nonconsequentialist camps, including Peter Singer's ethical theory.
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