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Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions$
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Ida J. Llewellyn-Smith and Anthony J. M. Verberne

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780195306637

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306637.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 June 2021

Central Circulatory Control: Psychological Stress and the Defense Reaction

Central Circulatory Control: Psychological Stress and the Defense Reaction

(p.220) 12 Central Circulatory Control: Psychological Stress and the Defense Reaction
Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions

Pascal Carrive

Oxford University Press

This chapter reviews the history and our current understanding of the central pathways mediating cardiovascular responses to psychological stress. The first part of the chapter deals with the circuits of central circulatory control as revealed by direct activation (electrical or chemical) of the neural substrate mediating the classic defense reaction, mostly in anesthetized preparations. The second part deals with the same circuitry as revealed by the effect of lesions or neuronal blockade on naturally-evoked psychological stress responses (conditioned fear, psychosocial stress, air-jet stress, and restraint) in the awake animal. Both approaches show that the dorsal tuberal hypothalamus plays a crucial role. Experiments in anesthetized preparations suggest that its output is relayed mainly by premotor sympathetic neurons in the rostral ventral medulla. However, experiments in conscious animals suggest that premotor sympathetic neurons located in the hypothalamus itself could also contribute, bypassing the relays in the medulla.

Keywords:   defense reaction, psychological stress, conditioned fear, psychosocial stress, hypothalamus, medulla, sympathetic premotor neurons, cardiovascular responses

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