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Sounds of the MetropolisThe 19th Century Popular Music Revolution in London, New York, Paris and Vienna$
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Derek B. Scott

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195309461

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309461.001.0001

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Professionalism and Commercialism

Professionalism and Commercialism

(p.15) 1 Professionalism and Commercialism
Sounds of the Metropolis

Derek B. Scott

Oxford University Press

London, New York, Paris, and Vienna became important musical centers as a consequence of the social and economic conditions that gave rise to an active concert life in each of them. The 19th century was an age of musical entrepreneurialism, and new markets for professionalism and commerce were created, such as blackface minstrelsy and music hall. Ticket prices were used to produce a class hierarchy of concerts. Cheap concerts were plentiful in the 1850s. The railways gave a boost to the music business. Women began to find professional musical employment, perhaps performing in a “Ladies' Orchestra” or, more often, becoming piano teachers. Alongside the promotion of public performances, music publishing and piano making were the most important musical enterprises of the new commercial age. Inevitably copyright and performing rights became crucial matters. This chapter argues that the status of popular music changed profoundly with the development of the music market.

Keywords:   copyright, music halls, sheet music, piano trade, performing right, star system

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